Characteristics of Tumours (18) Flashcards Preview

EMS - Mechanisms of Disease > Characteristics of Tumours (18) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Characteristics of Tumours (18) Deck (35):
1

Cancer

Uncontrolled growth of cells, can invade and spread to distance sites of body

2

Tumour/neoplasm

Lesion resulting from autonomous growth/abnormal growth of cells that persists in the absence of the initiating stimulus/abnormal swelling

3

Histogenesis

Differentiation of cells into specialised tissues and organs during growth from undifferentiated cells (3 primary germ layer)

4

Carcinoma

Epithelial cells

5

Sarcoma

Connective tissues

6

Lymphoma/leukaemia

Lymphoid/haematopoietic organs

7

Common and fatal cancers

Lung, breast/prostate, colon and rectum

8

Characterising tumours (DRLM)

Differentiation, rate of growth, local invasion, metastasis

9

Differentation

The extent that neoplastic cells resemble the normal parenchymal cells (morphologically and functionally)

10

Benign tumours and differentation

Well-differentiated, mitoses are rare

11

Anaplasia

Neoplasms comprised of poor-differentiated cells (malignant)

12

Differentiation - morphological changes

1. Pleomorphism
2. Abnormal nuclear morphology
3. Mitoses
4. Loss of polarity

13

Abnormal nuclear morphology

Too large (nuclear:cytoplasmic 1:1), irregular shape, chromatin distribution (coarsely clumped, along cell membrane), hyper chromatism (dark colour) abnormally large nucleoli

14

Differentiation - mitoses

Atypical, bizarre mitotic figure - tripolar, quadripolar, multipolar spindles

15

Differentiation - loss of polarity

Orientation of cells disturbed, disorganised growth

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Well differentiated grade

Low grade/grade 1

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Moderately differentiated grade

Intermediate/grade 2

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Poorly differentiated grade

High grade/grade 3

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Stage

A measure of prognostication/therapeutic decisions

20

Bronchogenic carcinoma secretes

Corticotropin, parathyroid-like hormone, insulin, glucagon

21

Local invasion - cancer

Infiltration, invasion, destruction

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Local invasion - benign

Cohesive expansile masses, localised to origin of site, no capacity to infiltrate/invade/metastasise

23

Benign tumours - encapsulation

Rim of fibrous tissue, ECM deposited by stromal cells activated by hypoxia from pressure of tumour, tissue plane - discrete, moveable, easily palpable, easily excised

24

Metastasis

Spread of tumour to sites physically discontinuous with primary tumour

25

Pathways of metastasis

Direct seeding, lymphatic (most common), haematogenous (veins more easily penetrated)

26

Sentinel nodes

First node in a regional lymphatic bin that receives lymph flow from primary tumour, frozen during surgery can guide surgeon to appropriate therapy

27

How are sentinel nodes identified?

Injection of radio labelled tracers/coloured dyes

28

Regional nodes

Effective barriers to further tumour dissemination, drainage of tumour cell debris and antigens induces reactive changes in nodes

29

Stroma

Connective tissue framework that neoplastic cells are embedded in

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What does a stroma provide?

Mechanical support, intercellular signalling, nutrition

31

Desmoplastic reaction

Fibrous stroma formation due to induction of connective tissue fibroblast proliferation by growth factors from tumour cells

32

Stroma contains

Cancer-associated fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, blood vessels, lymphocytic infiltrate

33

Clinical complications of tumours - compression

Displacement of adjacent tissues, benign

34

Clinical complications of tumours - destruction

Invasion, rapidly fatal if vital structures invaded, mucosal surfaces (ulceration)

35

Clinical complications of tumours - metabolic

Paraneoplastic (ACTH/ADH in small cell lung cancer), cachexia (interfere protein metabolism), Warburg effect (energy by high rate glycolysis with fermentation of lactic acid), neuropathies, myopathies, venous thrombosis