Chelation Therapy Flashcards Preview

MS2 Unit 6 Pharm > Chelation Therapy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chelation Therapy Deck (20):
1

mechanism of toxicity for heavy metals

bind to sulfhydryl groups in various organ systems and enzymatic processes throughout the body. affinity for organ system toxicity is a result of the characteristics of the heavy metal and its distribution sites

2

chelating agent

forms complexes with heavy metals. prevents or reverses the binding of metallic cations to reactive groups.

3

chelate

complex formed with the metal and chelator. heterocyclic ring, 5 and 6 membered rings are the most stable

4

efficacy of chelating agents

relative affinity of the chelator for the heavy metal. distribution of the chelator compared with the distribution of the metal.

5

ideal chelator qualities

Vd of the chelator > Vd of the chelate. high water solubility. resistant to biotransformation. ability to reach the site of where the metal is stored. capacity to form nontoxic complexes. stable at physiological pH. low affinity for trace elements.

6

ideal chelate qualities

more stable than the endogenous chelate. stable at body pH. resistant to biotransformation. water soluble. readily excreted. nontoxic.

7

british anti-lewisite (BAL)

dimercaprol. mixed with peanut oil. Intramuscular dosing, not IV. useful in arsenic poisoning, lead poisoning (encephalopathy), inorganic mercury poisoning.

8

adverse effects of BAL

dose dependent. pain at injection site, nausea, vomiting, increases in BP and HR. Need to keep urine alkaline so BAL-metal dissociation doesn't occur.

9

2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid

Succimer. Useful in lead, arsenic, mercury, cadmium. Well tolerated. Nausea, vomiting, flatus, diarrhea, mild elevations in AST and ALT.

10

CaNaEDTA (edetate calcium disodium)

mainly used in lead poisoning. can be mistaken for NaEDTA.

11

CaNaEDTA adverse events

principal toxicity due to the metal chelate. Renal toxicity, malaise, fever, increased ALT and AST.

12

Prussian blue

useful in thallium and cesium poisoning. adverse events: not absorbed after oral dosing and well tolerated.

13

clinical effects of lead

lower levels associated with IQ changes. colic, abdominal pain. altered mental status. footdrop and wrist drop. anemia (microcytic). nephrotox. HTN (most common symptom in adults)

14

workup for lead poisoning

capillary/venous blood. hair and urine are not helpful. CBC, BMP, LFTs, erythrocyte protoporphyrin. abdominal radiograph.

15

lead poisoning treatment

removal from source. whole bowel irrigation if lead in bowel. succimer. if encephalopathic, CaNaEDTA plus BAL

16

iron pharmacokinetics

peak serum concentrations occur 2-6 hours after ingestion. massive amounts of iron absorption overwhelm transferrin and there is an increase in circulating free iron

17

toxicologic mechanism of iron

direct corrosive effect to GI mucosa. leads to volume depletion. high anion gap metabolic acidosis. Direct negative inotropic effect (hypotension). Vasodilator (hypotension)

18

clinical effects of iron

early: local tissue effects of GI tract. N/V.
intermediate: N/V decrease and increase in metabolic acidosis and sequelae.
Intermediate II: severe local and systemic effects which may result in death.
Late: hepatotoxicity, ARDS, renal
Fifth stage: gastric outlet obstruction

19

deferoxamine

chelates ferric iron and is excreted in the urine as ferrioxamine which imparts a reddish brown color change to the urine. reaches intracytoplasmic and intramitochondrial free iron. chelates free iron ONLY!

20

adverse events with deferoxamine

rate-related hypotension, anaphylactoid reactions, yersinia enterocolitis, acute lung injury (in patients treated over 24 hours)