Chem Ch 1-3 Test Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chem Ch 1-3 Test Deck (40)
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1

Definition of chemistry

the study of the composition of materials and the changes that these materials undergo

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types of chemistry

analytical, physical, biochemistry, organic, and inorganic

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analytical chemistry

answers questions about composition

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physical chemistry

deals with energy transfers in chemical processes

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biochemistry

deals with the analysis of chemical processes in living things

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organic chemistry

study of carbon containing molecules

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inorganic chemistry

study of the chemistry of nonliving things

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steps of scientific method

1 state the problem
2 make observations
3 form a hypothesis
4 perform an experiment
5 make observations
6 develop a theory
7 modify theory
8 develop a scientific law

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theory

a well tested explanation for observations

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scientific law

a summary of many observations and experiments

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Matter

anything that has mass and volume

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quantitative descriptions

requires measurements

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mass

amount of matter, measured in grams

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volume

amount of space an object occupies

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qualitative descriptions

descriptions, not measured

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two types of matter

pure substances, mixtures

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pure substances

can write a chemical formula

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mixtures

variable ratio

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two kinds of pure substances

element, compound

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element

one type of atom

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compound

two or more different atoms chemically bonded

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two types of mixtures

homogeneous/heterogeneous

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homogeneous

the same throughout; dissolved (saltwater)

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heterogeneous

the sample may be different depending where you take it in the container

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Three states of matter

solid, liquid, gas

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solid

rigid shape, incompressible, fixed volume, usually particles tightly packed and organized

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liquid

indefinite shape but fixed volume, incompressible flows, usually less tightly packed than solids, less organized

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gas

indefinite shape and volume, flows, particles far away from each other, disorganized, compressible

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chemical reaction

a change in which new substances are formed

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reactant

a starting substance

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product

a result of the chemical change

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physical property

characteristics that describe a substance

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physical change

a change that does not effect the composition of the substance
reversible or irreversible

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chemical change indicators (5)

color change
change in temp
gas is produced
solid precipitate is formed
odor produced

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two ways to separate a mixture

filtration or distillation

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filtration

separates solid from a liquid

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distillation

liquid is boiled to produce a vapor that is then condensed into a liquid

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chemical property

characteristics that refer to the ability to form new substances

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chemical change

a change which produces new substances (same as chemical reaction)

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Law of Conservation of Mass

Mass is neither created nor destroyed
During any physical or chemical change, the mass of the products is always equal to the mass of the reactants