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Flashcards in Chem Intro Deck (16)
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Partial positive or negative charge

formed by hydrophilic compounds interacting with water.


Ionic bonds

atoms are bound by attraction of opposite ions


Covalent bonds

atoms are bound by sharing electrons to attain stable electron configurations. Examples are peptide bonds, C-H bonds, C-C bonds.


Peptide bonds

covalent bond between amino acids. the Carboxyl group of one amino acids shares electrons with amino group of another amino acid.


Van Der Waals Forces

the sum of the attractive or repulsive forces between molecules and play an important role in stabilizing the stacked bases in DNA and the stacked hydrocarbon tails in the cell membrane.


Polar covalent bonds

result in the formation of a electronegativity (also called a dipole), which results from a non-uniform distribution of electrons. If we use water, there will be a partial positive charge on the hydrogen atoms and a partial negative on the oxygen.



a molecule may be nonpolar either when there is an equal sharing of electrons between the two atoms of a diatomic molecule or because of the symmetrical arrangement of polar bonds in a more complex molecule.

Nonpolar compounds cannot interact with water because they are unable to form dipole.


Polar compounds

Cannot interact with lipids because the lipids cannot form a dipole. Polar bonds are when two elements or atoms are unequally sharing an electron pair.



measure of how strongly an atom will pull on an electron.

for example, oxygen is very electronegative and will pull so strongly on electrons that a water molecule will have a partial positive charge on the hydrogen atoms.


Functional groups

parts of compounds that can react with other compounds.

for example, an OH group is a more reactive functional group than a CH3 group.


Carboxylic acid

organic acids found in lipids and polyamides of amino-carboxylic acids re the main components of proteins.



organic compounds commonly found in carbohydrates and amino acid R groups.



form amide linkages which are a defining molecular feature of proteins, the secondary structure of which is due in part to the hydrogen bonding abilities of amides.



weak bases and are a feature of proteins; they can form hydrogen bonds or ionic bonds when protonated.


methyl groups

very stable and occur in many organic compounds


phosphate groups

negatively charged and are found in nucleic acids and are more commonly added onto proteins.