Chem/Phys Exam III Flashcards

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1
Q

4 physical states of matter

A

Solid, liquid, gas, plasma

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2
Q

Solids

A

-have a definite shape and volume
-have a movement (vibrate)
—molecules are touching and do not separate
-held in place by intermolecular forces
-non-compressible

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3
Q

Liquid

A
  • Definite volume, no definite shape
  • molecule are touching but have more movement
  • intermolecular forces are weaker and allow the molecules to slide past each other
  • non-compressible
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4
Q

Gases

A
  • have no definite shape or volume
  • expand to fill the container
  • molecules are not touching and have more movement
  • no intermolecular forces
  • Compressible
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5
Q

Heat of Fusion

A

Amt. of E necessary to melt a solid int liquid phase

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6
Q

Heat of Vaporization

A

Ant. of E necessary to vaporize a liquid into gas phase

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7
Q

3 types of intermole-cular forces

A

London dispersion, dipole-dipole, hydrogen bonding

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8
Q

Dipole -dipole forces

A

-polar molecule
Ex: acetone
-boiling point 56C, liquid @room temp

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9
Q

Hydrogen bonding

A
  • polar molecular
  • Strongest type of dipole bond
  • boiling point 100C, liquid @room temp
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10
Q

London dispersion forces

A
  • non-polar molecule
  • ex. CH4
  • weakest type of inter-molecular bond
  • boiling pt. -164, gas @room temp
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11
Q

Type of Bond

A

Ionic and Covalent

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12
Q

Ionic Bond

A
  • one atom donates electron to another

- ex: Na+ and CL-= NaCL

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13
Q

Covalent bond

A

-atoms share electrons

Ex. H+ and O- = H2O

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14
Q

Hydrogen Bonding occurs when:

A
  • a H atom is bonded directly to O, N or F
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15
Q

Surfactant Lowers

A

Surface tension

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16
Q

Without Surfactant

A
  • the thin film of fluid lining the alveoli could cause the walls to stick together and collapse
  • surfactant reduces the surface tension so this doesn’t happen
17
Q

Inhaled anesthetics comes in what form?

A

Liquid

18
Q

How do inhaled Anesthetics change from liquid to vapor

A

Vaporizers

19
Q

Vapor pressure

A

-when molecules of a liquid escapes into the gas phase, they collide with the walls of the container, exerting a force on the walls

20
Q

An increased in temp causes an increase in

A

-vapor Pressure and in “Volatility”

21
Q

For enflurane, A= 7.967
Torr, B= -1678 torr x K
What is the vapor presser of enflurane at 25C?

A

LogP=7.967+-1678/298K
LogP=2.34(now need to take the antilog to solve for P)
On your calculator, antilog is 10x
Antilog (2.34)= 102.34= 217 torr (same as 217mmHg)

22
Q

What does Vapor Pressure determine of a volatile anesthetic in a gas mixture

A

-mole fraction or Partial Pressure
Ex: If O2 is sent through a vaporizer with liquid enflurane, the composition of the O2 enflurane mixture will depend on the temp. Of the vaporizer and the pressure of the O2.

23
Q

The mole fraction is calculated as follows:
Xenflurane= vapor pressure of enflurane =217torr
Total pressure 750= 0.29

A

Find Mole fraction of enflurane: We run O2 at 750 torr through a vaporizer so that it becomes saturated with enflurane. In this case, we are at room temp. 25C; the partial pressure of enflurane.
The pressure of the mixture is still 750 torr, but part of this is now composed of enflurane

24
Q

Boiling point

A

The temp at which the vapor pressure is equal to the ambient pressure (normally one atmosphere)

25
Q

Boiling point of a liquid will increase if:

A

The pressure on the liquid is increased
Ex: Water normally boils into steam at 100C, but in a sealed pressured auto-clave, the boiling point increase to 120C or more.

26
Q

Gas to solid phase change

A

Deposition

27
Q

Solid to Gas phase change

A

Sublimation

28
Q

Heat of fusion

A

Energy required to melt a solid into liquid

29
Q

Heat of vaporization

A

Energy required to vaporize a liquid into gas

30
Q

Intermolecular forces

A

Dipole-dipole: partial charge on molecules interact.
Hydrogen bonding: strongest type of dipole bond.
London dispersion forces: non-polar molecules, weakest intermolecular bond due to transient shifts in charge locations on molecular.

31
Q

Example of dipole-dipole bond

A

Acetone -boils at 56C, liquid at room temp

32
Q

London dispersion force example

A

CH4 (methane) boiling pt: -164C, gas at room temp

33
Q

Covalent vs. ionic bonds

A

34
Q

Surfactant

A

Reduces surface tension, and amphipathic molecules line up with hydrophilic end to alveoli wall white hydrophobic end faces in

35
Q

High volatility meaning

A

Liquid has a higher evaporation, or tendency to change into a gas

36
Q

Vapor pressure in relationships to atmospheric pressure (760torr)

A

when vapor pressure of a liquid reaches ambient pressure (760torr), this is its boiling point

37
Q

Clausius- Clapeyron equation (know for test)

A

Modified form that we need to use:
LogP= A+ B/T

P= vapor pressure
A= will always be given (torr)
B= will always be given (torr * K)
T= degree in K

A and B are set values for each specific liquid