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Flashcards in Chem Term Review Deck (58):
1

the chemical bonding that results from the attraction between metal atoms and the surrounding sea of electrons

metallic bonding

2

metals are composed of atom cores surround by free moving valence electrons. The electrons can more from one metal atom to another

electron sea model

3

created by slightly positive and negative charges (opposite charges) that are separated by a short distance.

dipole

4

the intermolecular force in which a hydrogen atom that is bonded to a highly electronegative atom is attracted to an unshared pair of electrons of an electronegative atom in a nearby molecule (i.e., H2O)

hydrogen bonding

5

the intermolecular attractions resulting from the constant motion of electrons and the creation of instantaneous dipoles called this.

London dispersion forces

6

electrons that move freely about the electron sea (they do not have a "home" atom)

delocalized electrons

7

states that repulsion between the sets of valence-level electrons surrounding an atom cause these sets to be oriented as far apart as possible (it leads to molecular geometrical shapes)

VSEPR Theory

8

orbitals of equal energy produced by the combination of two or more orbitals on the same atom (carbon bonding)

hybrid orbitals

9

a pair of electrons of an atom that DO NOT bond

lone pair electrons

10

a covalent bond in which the bonded atoms have an unequal attraction for shared electrons (ex. HCl)

polar-covalent bond

11

chemical bond that results from the electrical attraction between cations and anions (the giving up of electrons)

ionic bond

12

a covalent bond in which the bonding of electrons are shared equally by the bonded atoms, resulting in a balanced distribution of an electrical charge (ex. H2)

nonpolar-covalent bond

13

a covalent bond in which one pair of electrons is shared between two atoms

single bond

14

a covalent bond in which two pairs of electrons is shared between two atoms

double bond

15

a covalent bond in which three pairs of electrons is shared between two atoms

triple bond

16

the ability of a substance to be hammered or beaten into thin sheats

malleability

17

forces between molecules

intermolecular forces

18

the ability of a substance to be drawn, pulled, or extruded through a small opening to produce

ductility

19

the simplest collection of atoms from an ionic compound's formula can be established

formula unit

20

the 3-dimensional arrangement of + and - ions (like NaCl) in a complex shape

crystal lattice

21

Bond angle and name for NH3

107.5 trigonal pyramidal

22

Bond angle and name for H2O

104.5 bent or angular

23

Bond angle and name for CH4

109.5 tetrahedral (electrons farthest away from e/o here)

24

linear angle - give degrees

180

25

Trigonal planar - give degrees

120

26

an atom or molecule that has gain or lost one or more electrons and has a negative and positive charge

ion

27

compound composed of ions bound together by electrostatic attraction (#anions = #of cations)

ionic compound

28

a chemical compound whose simplest units are molecules

molecular compound

29

a positive ion

cation

30

a negative ion

anion

31

an ion formed from a single atom

monatomic ion

32

ion formed from multiple atoms

polyatomic ion

33

the simplest collection of atoms from which an ionic compound’s formula can be established

formula unit

34

the sum of the average atomic masses of all the atoms represented in the formula of any molecule, formula unit, or ion

formula mass

35

a formula showing the types and numbers of atoms combined in a single molecule of a molecular compound (ex H2O)

molecular formula

36

the mass of one mole of a pure substance

molar mass

37


 

the symbols for the elements combined in a compound with subscripts showing the smallest whole-number mole ratio of the different atoms in the compound

 

 

empirical formula

38

a substance that reacts in a chemical change

reactant

39

a substance that is formed by a chemical change

product

40

Where is the subscript and coefficient?

A image thumb
41

an equation that has the same amount of atoms on both sides

balanced equation

42

the amount of a substance that contains as many particles as there are atoms in exactly 12 g of carbon-12

mole

43

the mass of one mole of a pure substance

molar mass

44

a conversion factor that relates the amounts in moles of any two substances involved in a chemical reaction

mole ratio

45

the reactant that limits the amounts of the other reactants that can combine—and the amount of product that can form—in a chemical reaction

limiting reactant

46

the substance that is not used up completely in a reaction

excess reactant

47


 

the maximum amount of product that can be produced from a given amount of reactant

 

 

theoretical yield

48

the measured amount of a product obtained from a reaction

actual yield

49

the ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield, multiplied by 100

percent yield

50

force per unit area of a surface

pressure

51

exactly equivalent to 760 mm Hg

atmosphere (pressure)

52

the pressure exerted by a force of one newton acting on an area of one square meter

pascal

53

the common unit of pressure measured from a mercury barometer

mm Hg

54

a pressure of 1 mm Hg in honor of Torricelli’s barometer

torr

55

the temperature -273.15C. is called this and is given a value of zero in the Kelvin scale

absolute zero

56


 

the mathematical relationship among pressure, volume, temperature, and # of moles of a gas (PV = nRT)

 

 

ideal gas

57

a collision where there is no net loss of total kinetic energy

elastic collision

58

the conditions of exactly 1 atm pressure and 0C (273K)

standard temperature pressure (STP)