Unit 10 Vocab Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Unit 10 Vocab Deck (38):
1

-based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion.
-Developed by scientists in the late 19th century to describe behavior of molecules and atoms that make up matter
-Used to explain properties of solids, liquids, and gases

kinetic-molecular theory

2

a hypothetical gas that perfectly fits all the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory

ideal gas

3

a collision in which there is no net loss of total kinetic energy (happens between gas particles and container walls as well as other gas particles)

elastic collision

4

the movement of particles from regions of higher density to lower density (the particles spread out spontaneously and mix)

diffusion

5

a process by which gas particles pass through a tiny opening

effusion

6

a gas that does not behave completely according to the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory

real gas

7

a substance that can flow and therefore take the shape of its container(applies to liquids and gases)

fluids

8

a force that tends to pull adjacent parts of a liquid’s surface together, thereby decreasing surface area to the smallest possible size. (a property common of all liquids)

surface tension

9

the attraction of the surface of a liquid to the surface of a solid (ex. liquid going up a test tube)

capillary action

10

the process by which a liquid or solid changes into a gas

vaporization

11

the process by which particles escape from the surface of a non-boiling liquid and enter the gas state (a form of vaporization)

evaporation

12

the physical change of a liquid to a solid by removal of energy as heat

freezing

13

solids composed of crystals (most solids are this)

crystalline solids

14

a substance in which the particles are arranged in an orderly, geometric, repeating pattern

crystal

15

a solid in which the particles are arranged randomly (noncrystalline solids: glass, plastics, etc.)

amorphous solid

16

-the physical change of a solid to a liquid by the addition of energy as heat

melting

17

the temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid

melting point

18

– substances that retain certain liquid properties even at temperatures which they appear to be solid (a property of amorphous solids since they can flow over a wide range of temps.)

supercooled liquids

19

the total three-dimensional arrangement of particles of a crystal

crystal structure

20

the smallest portion of a crystal lattice that shows the three-dimensional pattern of the entire lattice

unit cell

21

any part of a system that has uniform composition and properties

phase

22

the process by which a gas changes into a liquid

condensation

23

a dynamic condition in which two opposing changes occur at equal rates in a closed system(ie. an equal amount of molecules moving from liquid to vapor phase and vise-versa in a closed container)

equilibrium

24

the pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium with its corresponding liquid at a given temperature

equilibrium vapor pressure

25

liquids that evaporate readily

volatile liquids

26

the conversion of a liquid to a vapor within the liquid as well as at its surface

boiling

27

the temperature at which the equilibrium vapor pressure of the liquid equals the atmospheric pressure

boiling point

28

the amount of energy as heat that is needed to vaporize one mole of liquid at the liquid’s boiling point at the constant pressure (∆H_v)

molar enthalpy of vaporization

29

– the temperature at which the solid and the liquid are in equilibrium at 1 atm (760 torr, or 101.3 kPa) pressure

freezing point

30

the amount of energy as heat required to melt one mole of solid at the solid’s melting point (∆H_f)

molar enthalpy of fusion

31

the change of state from a solid directly to a gas

sublimation

32

the change of state from a gas directly into a solid

deposition

33

a graph of pressure versus temperature that shows the conditions under which the phases of a substance can exist

phase diagram

34

indicates the temperature and pressure conditions at which the solid, liquid, and vapor of the substance can coexist at equilibrium.

triple point

35

indicates the critical temperature and critical pressure

critical point

36

indicates the critical temperature and critical pressure

critical point

37

the temperature above which the substance cannot exist in the liquid state

critical temperature (tc)

38

the lowest pressure at which the substance can exist as a liquid at the critical temperature

critical pressure (Pc)