What is ionic bonding?
Ionic bonding involves two atoms.
One of the atoms has a very high electronegativity (attraction for electrons) relative to the other atom and so it snatches an electron from that other atom (usually a metal atom).
When this happens the atom with the larger electronegativity becomes a negatively charged ion and the other atom becomes a positively charged ion.
The positive and negative ion are now electrostatically attracted to each other and it is this electrostatic attraction that is known as the ionic bond.
What is covalent bonding?
A covalent bond is a shared pair of electrons between two (different or the same) atoms.
What is VESPR and what are it's limitations?
VESPR gives chemists a way to determine the structure of covalent compounds. Its limitation is that VESPR does not usually work for transition metals.
What causes the different shapes we see in molecules?
The shape of a molecule is a result of valence shell electron pairs (bonding and lone pairs) arranging themselves to cause the least amount of repulsion of like charges and increase the amount of attraction between opposite charges (lone pairs/bonding pairs and nuclei). This makes the molecule more stable.
State the correct order of repulsion power from least to most.
- Single bond & single bond
- Double bond & single bond
- Double bond & double bond;
- Lone pair & single bond
- Lone pair & double bond
- Lone pair & lone pair
Least to most from top to bottom
What kind of hybridization would you expect to find in in following shapes:
- Trigonal planar
- Trigonal bipyramidal
- Square planar
- Linear - sp
- Trigonal planar - sp2
- Tetrahedral - sp3
- Trigonal bipyramidal - sp3d
- Octahedral - sp3d2
- Square planar - sp2d
Which type of wave interference (constructive or destructive) produces bonding molecular orbitals? Which type of wave interference produces anti-bonding molecular orbitals?
Constructive interference produces bonding molecular orbitals.
Destructive interference produces anti-bonding molecular orbitals.
Rearrange the following in the correct order from most energy to least energy from left to right.
Atomic orbitals, antibonding molecular orbitals, bonding molecular orbitals.
Most energy to least energy going left to right: Anti-bonding molecular orbitals, atomic orbitals, bonding molecular orbitals.
What is resonance?
The idea that a molecule has more than one valid Lewis structure (called resonance structures). The true structure of a molecule is an average of all the molecule's valid resonance structures.