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The molecules that make up living organisms are divided into 2 categories. What are the two categories?

Organic and inorganic


What are organic compounds?

molecules that contain hydrocarbon groups and usually equivalently bonded; made up of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids


What are inorganic compounds?

do not contain hydrocarbon groups and (hydrogen & carbon bonded together); have ionic bonding
Ex: water, salts, acids, bases - important in living organisms


What is water?

a very simple molecule that has unique properties.


What causes water to form hydrogen bonds with each other and with other polar molecules?

Because of water being a polar molecule that has a slight positive charge in the area of the hydrogen atom and a slight negative charge in the oxygen atom.


Because of the polarity of water, what roles does water play within the living organism? or What are the four properties of water that make it so necessary for life?

(1) Water is the universal solvent. (2) Water is an ideal transport medium. (3) Water has a high heat capacity and a high heat of vaporization. (4) Water is used for lubrication.


What does "water is the universal solvent" mean?

More chemicals can be dissolved in water than any other known solvent. Chemicals added to water are called solutes and the result of the chemicals plus water is called a solution.
Breaks down things that are hydrophillic (chemicals that mix well in water)
Ionically bonded substance it breaks down
solute into a solvent we have a solution;
chemicals that dissolve or mix well in water are hydrophillic (water loving) usually are electrically neutral, polar molecules

vitamin & mineral- essential for metabolism of our nutrients (solvent is the one that does the dissolving)
-increases the bodies rate of absorption – lack of water decreases bodies rate of absorption


What does "water is an ideal transport medium" mean?

blanket property of water allows water to move around freely and to be cushioned from each other (the negative side will surround the positive charged molecules
- transports many substances – nutrients, pharmacy, exports urine and waste
- efficiency of the ability of red blood cells to collect oxygen


What does "water has a high heat capacity and a high heat of vaporization" mean?

As the chemicals in solution react they often give off energy as heat. Water is able to absorb heat from biochemical reactions so that the overall temperature of the solution does not rise too rapidly.This stabilization of heat is necessary to keep living organisms in a stable temperature range so that the reactions of life's processes can occur at a steady rate without interruption.
high heat capacity – influence of hydrogen on water molecule – high surface tension on water – hydrogen keeps it down but when it gets too hot it lets it go)
- essential for the cooling and heating system of the body
- need to manufacturer neurotransmitters including serotonin
- increase attention span
- vital for immune system to fight infection as well as cancer cells
- humans have no stored water to pull from – to hydrate we must drink water
(water can absorb oxygen into it)

The high heat of vaporization means that water needs a fairly high temperature to change from a liquid to a gas; so water will remain in a liquid state through a wide range of temperatures. Salinity will lower the heat of vaporization, so we have boiling faster.


What does "water is used for lubrication" mean?

the ability for water to surround molecules allows it to be a lubricant for moving parts in the body. Ex: (in the animal body)- the fluid in the pericardial sac allows the heart to move freely within the sac.


Why is water called a “polar” molecule?

It has a slight positive charge in the area of the hydrogen atoms and a slight negative charge in the area of the oxygen atom. This polarity allows water molecules to form hydrogen bonds with each other and with other polar molecules.


What are salts?

- are mineral compounds that have ionic bonds, and they are the principle form of minerals that enter and are stored in the body (ex: salt NaCl – present in high amounts in the blood and other tissues) (Ex: CaPO₄ (calcium phosphate- substance that gives bones their rigidity)


When salts are added to water they immediately... what?

ionize or divide into separate ions


Salts in their ionic form are known as...?



What are electrolytes?

substances that have the ability to transmit an electrical charge. Ex: (the transmission of nerve impulses requires sodium ions (Na⁺) and potassium ions (K⁺)), the contraction of muscle requires sodium, potassium, and calcium ions (Ca²⁺)


How is an ion different from an atom?

Atoms are neutral. They contain the same number of protons as electrons. An ion is an electrically charged particle produced by either removing electrons from a neutral atom to yield a positive ion or adding electrons to a neutral atom to yield a negative ion.


What is an electrolyte?

Electrolytes are substances that have the ability to transmit an electrical charge.


What are some examples of electrolytes?

Sodium, potassium, and calcium are examples of electrolytes.


What are acids?

ionically bonded substances that, when added to water, freely release hydrogen (H⁺) - acids ionize in water. Thus, acids are called H⁺ donors or proton donors, since H⁺ is a proton with no electron


What are bases?

alkaline compounds that are ionically bonded, also ionize in water but release a hydroxyl ion (OH ̄) not hydrogen ions; therefore bases are known as proton acceptors. Hydroxyl ions are attracted to H⁺ ions to form water.


____________ are also electrolytes because when they ionize in water, they can transmit electricity.

Acids and Bases


What is an example of an acid?

(HCl) – hydrochloric acid


What is measured on a pH scale?

acidity and alkalinity are measured on a ph scale


What are the ranges on a pH scale?

1 – (most acidic) to 14 (the most alkaline or basic) A ph of 7 is the middle of the scale and is neutral.
To function properly, the tissues and blood in the animal’s body must maintain a ph of around 7.4, which is slightly basic.


What does buffering the system mean?

means keeping the ph in a neutral range.


Which type of compound is known as a proton donor, acid or base?



What does pH measure?

The pH of a solution is a measure of its acidity or alkalinity.


Is a solution with a pH of 8.5 acidic or basic?



How does a weak acid act as a buffer?

It helps the cell maintain a neutral pH by not allowing excessive hydrogen or hydroxyl ions to accumulate. In water, a weak acid will initially ionize into: (1) free hydrogen (H+) ions, (2) a weak base product, and (3) remaining intact weak acid molecules. The pH of the solution is not changed much because some of the chemical remains in acid form and some in the form of a weak base.


What are organic molecules?

molecules that contain carbon


What are the 4 organic groups?

- Carbohydrates
- Lipids
- proteins
- nucleic acids


What is it about the element carbon that makes it so omnipresent (everywhere) in organic chemistry?

- carbon has 4 electrons – moved to share
- most stable when it has 4 covalent bonds with other atoms which allows it to exist in many forms including chains, rings, and branches
(Many of the organic molecules used in the body are macromolecules – long, complex molecules, often with repeating units.


What are Carbohydrates?

think of as a hydrated carbon or water-containing carbon


What are Carbohydrates used for?

- used for:
storage of energy – as liver glycogen
cellular structures: table sugar, starch, and cellulose
- function:
- stores energy as liver glycogen
Backbone of DNA and RNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) (Ribonucleic acid)
- composed of :
atoms of carbon
oxygen (with hydrogen and oxygen in the same ratio as in water – 2-1)
- simplest form
simple sugar or monosaccharide – contains 3 – 7 carbon atoms in a chain or ring.
glucose (6 carbons atoms) – hexose sugar (fructose) molecular formula C₆H₁₂O₆
(5 carbons atoms) – pentose sugar


An element or compound dissolved to form a solution is called .....



liquid of an element or compound the liquid is being added to is called the ......



A level of solute (amount) in a solvent is ....



What is another word for molarity?



What is Avogadro constant?

6.02 × 10 23
- the number of atoms in 1 mole


What is scientific notation?

taking a complex number and making it simple