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Element vs Compound

*Element: Lead (Pb)
*Compound: Formaldehyde (HCHO)


Organic Compounds

Those containing the element Carbon

*except: CO, CO2, HCO3-, CO3 2-


Inorganic Compounds

All other compounds e.g. CO2, H2O, NH3, H2S


Atomic number

*number of protons in the nucleus of an element
*all isotopes of an element have the same atomic number


Atomic mass

Total number of nucleons (protons + neutrons) in the nucleus



Atoms of an element that have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons (same atomic #, different atomic mass)


Molecular formula

Shows the actual number of atoms of each element present in a molecule


Molecular weight

The sum of the atomic weights for each molecule

*useful for converting btw moles & g


how many moles of calcium chloride (CaCl2) are present in 15.0g of CaCl2?

40.08 + (2 x 35.45) = 110.98

(1 mol/ 110.98 g CaCl2) x 15g = 0.135 mol CaCl2


A packet contains 3g of sugar formula (C12H22O11). How many moles?

(12x12)+(1x22)+(11x16)=342 g

(1mol/ 342g) x 3g = 0.0088 moles


What's molarity of 1mg of RDX (C3H6N6O6) in 20mL of water?

(12x3)+(6x1)+(6x14)+(16x6)= 222 g

(1mg/20mL) x (g/1000mg) x (mol/222g) x (1000mL/1L)= 0.000225 M



The number of moles of solute dissolved in one liter of solution

M= moles of solute/ liter of solution
= moles/liter



Number of equivalents of solute in 1 L of the solution, N

*Number of equivalents= mass/ (molecular weight/charge on dissociated species)
*Normality= Number of equivalents /volume of solution in liters


Calculate the normality of a 1L solution of nitric acid (80μg) HNO3,
HNO3-> H+ + NO3-

*Mass= 80μg x (1mg/10^3 μg) x (g/10^3 mg) = 80 x 10^-6
*Mol weight of HNO3= 1+14+(16*3)= 63 g/mol
*# of equivalents= mass/(mol weight/charge)
80x10^-6g/(63 g/mol/ 1)= 1.269x 10^-6
*normality= #of equivalents/volume
1.269x10^-6/1 = 1.3 x 10^-6 N


Calculate the normality for a 2L solution containing 3mg AlCl3,
AlCl3-> Al2+ + 3Cl-

*Mass= 3mg x (g/1000mg)= 3x10^-3 g
*mol weight of AlCl3= [26.98+ (35.45 x 3)]= 133.33 g/mol
*# of equivalents= mass/ (mol weight/charge)
3x10^-3 g/ (133.33/3)= 6.75 x 10^-5
*normality= #of equivalents/volume
6.75 x 10^-5/ 2L = 3.38 x 10^-5 N


What's the normality of 10mg of calcium chloride (CaCl2) in 3L,
CaCl2-> Ca2+ + 2Cl-

*mass= 10mg x (g/1000mg)= 10 x 10^-3
*mol weight= 40.08+ (35.45x2)= 110.98 g/mol
*#of equivalents= mass/ (mol weight/charge)
10x10^-3 g/ (110.98/2) = 1.80 x 10^-4
*normality= #of equivalents/ volume
1.80 x 10^-4/ 3= 6.0071 x 10^-5 N


Combustion of Propane- how many g of oxygen are needed to burn 100g of propane?

*form balanced eqn:
*C3H8 + O2 -> CO2 + H2O
*C3H8 + 5O2 -> 3CO2 + 4H2O
*calculate mol weight of C3H8 & O2:
*(3x12)+(8x1)= 44 g/mol
*(2x16)= 32 g/mol
*determine # of moles of propane & oxygen
*100g x 1mol/44g = 2.2727 mol
*(5mol O2/ mol C3H8) x 2.2727 mol C3H3 = 11.3635 mol O2
*100 g C3H8 x (mol C3H8/44g) x (5mol O2/1mol C3H8) x (32gO2/molO2) = 363.6 g O2


Calculate volume of air required to burn 100g of propane at STP (1atm, 273 K)

*volume of ideal gas at STP = 22.414 L (1mol)
*use mol of O2 to calculate volume:
*11.3635 mol O2 x (22.414L/mol)= 254.54 L O2
*convert from volume of oxygen to volume of air
*air contains ~21% O2 by volume
*254.54 L x (L air/ 0.21 O2) = 1212.1 L air


What mass of CO2 will be produced If 100g of butane (C4H10) is completely oxidized to CO2 and water?

*(4x12)+(10x1)= 58 g/mol C4H10
*100g C4H10 x (1mol/58g)= 1.72 mol C4H10
*1.72 mol C4H10 x (8mol CO2/2mol C4H10)= 6.90 mol CO2
*12+ (2x16)= 44 g/mol CO2
*6.90 mol CO2 x (44 g/ 1mol CO2)= 303.4 g CO2