Flashcards in Chemistry 3 - Rates, Equilibrium and Organic Chemistry (C8 - C11) Deck (50)
How do you calculate the rate of a reaction?
Measure the amounts of reactants being used up or products being made over time.
How do you find the rate of reaction from a graph?
How do you find the rate of reaction at any given point on a graph?
The tangent about the point.
What is the minimum amount of energy required by particles to react called?
Why does increasing the temperature of a reaction increase its speed?
Because there is more kinetic energy in the particles, making a larger amount of collisions between them.
What is a method other than temperature of increasing the rate of the reaction by increasing the number of collisions?
Increasing the concentration of the reactants.
How does a Catalyst speed up the rate of a reaction?
They provide an alternate route for the reaction to take place, decreasing the activation energy.
How does a reversible reaction work?
The products of the reaction can react to make the original reactants.
What is an exothermic reaction?
A reaction where the overall energy change is a decrease, energy is given out to the surroundings. A reaction where the energy required to make bonds is less than that required to break them.
What is an endothermic reaction?
A reaction where more energy is required to make bonds than is required to break them, as energy is absorbed from the surroundings.
What is an equilibrium?
A reversible reaction in a closed system where the forward and backward reactions are happening at the same rate.
What happens if you increase the temperature in an equilibrium reaction?
The reaction will favour the endothermic side, which takes in heat, and the rate of this reaction will increase.
What is crude oil?
A mixture of many different compounds, most of which are hydrocarbons.
What are hydrocarbons?
A compound made of carbon and hydrogen atoms in a covalent bond chain.
What are alkanes?
A saturated hydrocarbon. They contain as many hydrogen atoms as possible in their molecules.
What does saturated mean?
It does not have a double bond. They contain as many hydrogen atoms as possible in their molecules.
What is the formula for alkanes?
What is volatility?
The tendency to turn into gas.
What is viscosity?
How thick it is.
Which fractions make better fuels?
Lighter because they ignite more easily and burn well, with cleaner (less smoky) flames.
How do you separate crude oil into separate fractions?
What are the products of complete combustion?
Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapour
What are the products of incomplete combustion?
Carbon Monoxide and Water Vapour
What is cracking?
Breaking a mixture of hydrocarbons up into two or more Alkenes
What is the difference between cracking and Fractional distillation?
The difference is that cracking involves breaking bonds while fractional distillation is just separation of hydrocarbons.
What is formed in complete combustion of an alkene?
Carbon dioxide and water.
How do alkenes react with halogens, hydrogen and water?
By adding atoms across the C=C bond, forming a saturated molecule.
What is the functional group of alcohols?
What is the functional group of carboxylic acids?