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Flashcards in Chemistry Deck (19):
1

Conservative major ion

Sodium
chloride
sulfate
magnesium
calcium
potassium

2

Conservative major ion composition

Sodium- 55%
Chloride- 31%
Sulfate- 8%
Magnesium- 4%
Calcium- 1%
Potassium- 1%

3

Salinity and conductivity

conductivity increases as salt content increases

4

Things that affect density

salinity, temperature, pressure

5

What are CTDs

Conductivity
Temperature
Depth

6

Salinity trends

Salinity greatest in warm tropical water (evaporation)
Salinity lowest at inputs freshwater from river or melting

7

Units of Salinity

no units
uses PSU (practical salinity unit)

8

how does salinity relate to weight

salinity is approximately equal to weight in grams
_g per 1000g--> ppt (%o)

9

what consists of salt

ions
cation (+)
anion (-)

10

Elements in the seawater

Water is universal solvent thus dissolving/eroding rock releasing all elements.
Every natural occurring element found in seawater

11

Where do sea salts come from

weathered rock (slow process)
cations come from on land
anions come from interior of earth
Volcanic rock do not contain enough anions thus volcanoes introduces

12

What is residence time

time to replace the total amount of ions in seawater with ions in the river flow

13

How does the salt concentration of the oceans change

it hasn't for 1.5 billion years
It is in a 'steady state'

14

What is steady state

Removal of salt from oceans being equal to input rate

15

What are evaporites

salt deposits left behind when seawater evaporates

16

Process of adding salt and removing salt from ocean

river brings in salt and produced by biogenic sediments, settles to sediment, vents circulate, evaporite removes salt

17

are other substances not conservative

no, the concentration varies geographically

18

Oxygen and Carbon dioxide concentrations

not conservative

19

How does oxygen concentration change

-oxygen comes in from atmosphere and photoautotrophs (photosynthesis)
-oxygen consumed by respiration
-levels go up because less aerobic organisms, mixing occurs and decomposition releases oxygen