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Flashcards in Plate Tectonics and Scientific Method Deck (84):
1

What are the four major layers of the Earth's interior?

Crust, Mantle, Outer core, Inner core

2

What is the upper 2 layer of the mantle called?

Lithosphere, astenosphere

3

What is the upper 2 layer of the mantle called?

Lithospher, astenospher

4

What is the depth of the continental curst?

0-65 km

5

What is the depth of the oceanic crust?

0-10 km

6

What is the depth of the mantle

45-2900 km

7

What is the depth of the outer core?

2900-5300 km

8

What is the depth of the inner core?

3500-6300 km

9

What is the density of the continental crust?

2.67 g/cm3

10

What is the density of the oceanic crust?

3.0 g/cm3

11

What is the density of the mantle?

4.5 g/cm3

12

What is the density of the outer core?

11.5 g/cm3

13

What is the density of the inner core?

13.0 g/cm3

14

What is the temperature of continental crust?

15

What is the temperature of the oceanic crust

16

What is the temperature of the mantle?

1100-5000 C

17

What is the temperature of the outer core?

5000-6000 C

18

What is the trend of the density

As closer to the center you get the denser it is due tot he heavier elements

19

What is the trend of the density

As closer to the center you get the denser it is due tot he heavier elements

20

What is the upper 2 layer of the mantle called?

Lithospher, astenospher

21

What is the depth of the continental curst?

0-65 km

22

What is the depth of the oceanic crust?

0-10 km

23

What is the depth of the mantle

45-2900 km

24

What is the depth of the outer core?

2900-5300 km

25

What is the depth of the inner core?

3500-6300 km

26

What is the density of the continental crust?

2.67 g/cm3

27

What is the density of the oceanic crust?

3.0 g/cm3

28

What is the inner core made of?

made of iron and nickel

29

What is the density of the outer core?

11.5 g/cm3

30

What is the density of the inner core?

13.0 g/cm3

31

What is the temperature of continental crust?

32

What is the temperature of the oceanic crust

33

What is the temperature of the mantle?

1100-5000 C

34

What is the temperature of the outer core?

5000-6000 C

35

What is the temperature of the inner core?

6000-6600 C

36

What is the trend of the density

As closer to the center you get the denser it is due tot he heavier elements

37

What is the crust made of?

CC- magnesium and aluminum rich silicates
OC-magnesium and iron rich silicates

38

What phase is the crust?

Solid

39

What phase is the mantle

semi liquid/solid (plastic)

40

What is the mantle made of

magnesium and iron rich silicates

41

What is the upper layer of the mantle and how deep is it?

250 km and Asthenosphere

42

What is isostasy?

the change in elevation of sections of the crust to balance pressure in upper mantle

43

What do subduction/convergent zones create

Trenches
Often form volcanic mountain ranges (magma comes up through cracks)

44

What phase is the inner core?

solid

45

What is the outer core made of?

made of iron and nickel

46

What is the inner core made of?

made of iron and nickel

47

What does the composition of the inner core contribute

the magnetic field

48

Describe the relationship between seismic waves and density

increase in seismic waves with increasing density

49

S-waves travel through

solids, not liquids

50

P waves travel through

liquids and solids

51

P waves are

penetrating waves

52

S waves are

shallow/ short waves

53

What determines S and P waves

the depth and strength

54

How is it hypothesized that the Earth is composed of iron and nickel

looked at planetary bodies (meteorites, asteroids, space rubble)

55

The inner layers are (pressure and temperature)

very hot and high pressure (so high, rock can deform and flow)

56

how many major plates are there

7 major and multiple smaller ones

57

How long do plates last

for a very long time but they do change

58

What did Alfred Wegener do

proposed that continents were moving

59

How are/were major geological features formed

they were boundaries of earlier plates

60

What are subduction/convergent zone

Where ONE plate is forced under another when 2 plates come together

61

What do subduction/convergent zones create

Trenches
Often form volcanic mountain ranges (magma comes up through cracks)

62

How does Plate tectonic theory relate to sea floor spreading

refinement of that hypothesis
-crust is 7 rigid plates
-new curst at mid ocean ridges
-curst sinks at convergence zones

63

What are transform faults?

Where plates slide horizontally past each other

64

Hot spots create

islands chains which indicate movement direction of crust

65

How does movement of plates happens

can happen over short periods, quick burst
can happen over long periods of time

66

What does short burst of movement create

high seismic activity--> Earthquakes

67

How does the mantle move?

In convection currents, hotter parts by outer core move up (heat rises) and cooler parts near crust sink creating a convection current

68

How fast do plates move in a year

average 1-17 cm per year

69

What does ridge steepness tell about speed of crusts

The steeper the ridge the slower the spreading (such as the mid-atlantic ridge compared to the East Pacific ridge)

70

What is Observing

The gathering of data with out altering the system being explained

71

What is an experiment

manipulation or control of system observed

72

What is a null hypothesis

No effect

73

What is an alternative hypothesis

does affect

74

What is a Hypothesis

an explanation for what is observed

75

What did Sir Francis Bacon notice

continents fit together like puzzle peices

76

What did Alfred Wegener do

proposed that continents were moving

77

What is support for the theory of plate tectonics?

Puzzle pieces
Topographic and continental features match
Biological similarities and fossils

78

What is the continental drift theory

plates moving but did not explain how

79

What is Sea Floor Spreading

plates moving by motion of sea floor (convection of mantle)

80

How does Plate tectonic theory relate to sea floor spreading

refinement of that hypothesis
-crust is 7 ridgid plates

81

Evidence used to test plate tectonics

-Mirror image patterns of magnetization
-Orientation of magnetic minerals in rock
-sediment thickness increases from ridge crest
-radiometrically dated
-magnetics and age indicate 200 million year old crust
-seismic activity and vulcanism

82

Hot spots create

islands chains which indicate movement direction of crust

83

What are hydrothermal vents

hot sea water is emitted near the ridge crest
-convection of seawater through hot volcanic rock
-hot salt water dissolves metals creating the plumes

84

What are ophiolites

section of ocean crust and lithified ocean sediment that have been uplifted onto land