Flashcards in Chemistry Deck (65)
- each carbon make 4 covalent bonds
- used in cutting tools and jewelry
- each carbon makes 3 bonds
- arranged in layers which can slide
- one electron from each atom is delocalised so is good conductor
alkali metal + water ---
metal hydroxide + hydrogen
alkali metal + oxygen ---
state the use for argon
state use for helium
what is a metal ore ?
rock with enough metal to make it economically viable to extract
what are the 3 ways to extract a metal from its ore ?
- reduction with carbon
how are metals extracted by reduction with carbon ?
react with carbon (smelt), oxygen will bond with the carbon
only works with less reactive metals than carbon
why is copper extracted by reduction not used for electrical wiring ?
this method makes impure copper, reducing the conductivity
how does electrolysis work ?
- compound dissolved in water conducts (electrolyte)
- ions go to the electrodes and gain / lose electrons to become atoms
what is the negative electrode called ?
cathode (gives electrons)
what is the positive electrode called ?
anode (accepts electrons)
when is electrolysis used ?
- high profits (expensive process)
- metal is more reactive than carbon
describe the properties / uses of copper
- good conductors so electrical wires
- hard but can be bent
- can't react with water (less reactive than hydrogen)
describe the properties / uses of aluminium
- corrosion-resistant and low density
- forms hard alloys
- used in planes
describe the properties / uses of titanium
- corrosion-resistant, low density, very strong
- replacement hips
why are alloys generally harder ?
different sized atoms make it harder to slide past each other
what is crude oil ?
a mixture of hydrocarbons
what is an electrophile ?
electron pair acceptor
what is a nucleophile ?
electron pair donor
what is the most common example of electrophilic addition ?
alkene and bromine
(orange bromine water to colourless)
how do you name a polymer ?
poly (monomer name)
what is nomenclature ?
naming organic compounds
what is the 'dripping' equipment used in titration called ?
what does volatile mean ?
what is a monoprotic acid?
gives one H+ per molecules when dissociates (hydrochloric acid)
what is a diprotic acid?
gives two H+ (sulfuric acid)
what is a triprotic acid?
gives 3 H+ (phosphoric acid)