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Flashcards in Chemistry Deck (65)
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1

describe diamond

- each carbon make 4 covalent bonds
- used in cutting tools and jewelry

2

describe graphite

- each carbon makes 3 bonds
- arranged in layers which can slide
- one electron from each atom is delocalised so is good conductor

3

alkali metal + water ---

metal hydroxide + hydrogen

4

alkali metal + oxygen ---

metal oxide

5

state the use for argon

filament lamps

6

state use for helium

floating balloons
airships

7

what is a metal ore ?

rock with enough metal to make it economically viable to extract

8

what are the 3 ways to extract a metal from its ore ?

- reduction with carbon
- electrolysis
-displacement reaction

9

how are metals extracted by reduction with carbon ?

react with carbon (smelt), oxygen will bond with the carbon
only works with less reactive metals than carbon

10

why is copper extracted by reduction not used for electrical wiring ?

this method makes impure copper, reducing the conductivity

11

how does electrolysis work ?

- compound dissolved in water conducts (electrolyte)
- ions go to the electrodes and gain / lose electrons to become atoms

12

what is the negative electrode called ?

cathode (gives electrons)

13

what is the positive electrode called ?

anode (accepts electrons)

14

when is electrolysis used ?

- high profits (expensive process)
- metal is more reactive than carbon

15

describe the properties / uses of copper

- good conductors so electrical wires
- hard but can be bent
- can't react with water (less reactive than hydrogen)

16

describe the properties / uses of aluminium

- corrosion-resistant and low density
- forms hard alloys
- used in planes

17

describe the properties / uses of titanium

- corrosion-resistant, low density, very strong
- replacement hips

18

why are alloys generally harder ?

different sized atoms make it harder to slide past each other

19

what is crude oil ?

a mixture of hydrocarbons

20

what is an electrophile ?

electron pair acceptor

21

what is a nucleophile ?

electron pair donor

22

what is the most common example of electrophilic addition ?

alkene and bromine
(orange bromine water to colourless)

23

how do you name a polymer ?

poly (monomer name)

24

what is nomenclature ?

naming organic compounds

25

what is the 'dripping' equipment used in titration called ?

burette

26

what does volatile mean ?

easily evaporated

27

what is a monoprotic acid?

gives one H+ per molecules when dissociates (hydrochloric acid)

28

what is a diprotic acid?

gives two H+ (sulfuric acid)

29

what is a triprotic acid?

gives 3 H+ (phosphoric acid)

30

what is the relationship between conductivity and weak/strong acids ?

the stronger the acid, the more conductive it is due to increased conc of ions