Chemistry GCSE: C2 Bonding, Structure and Properties of matter Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chemistry GCSE: C2 Bonding, Structure and Properties of matter Deck (68)
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1

Ionic bonds form between...

Positively charged metals ions and negatively charged non-metal ions.

 

 

Ionic bonds are (electrostatic) attractions between oppositely charged ions.

2

Do ionic bonds involve...

 

  1. Sharing electrons
  2. Loss and gain of electrons
  3. Free electrons

Loss and gain of electrons

 

Metal atoms lose electrons to form positive ions.

Non-metals atoms gain electrons to form negative ions.

These ions are (electrostatically) attracted to each other.

3

What charge do metal ions have?

Positive.

4

Why do metal atoms form positive ions?

Because they have to lose electrons to fill their outer shell.

5

What charge do non-metal ions have?

Negative

6

Why do non-metal atoms form negative ions?

Because they have to gain electrons to fill their outer shell.

7

What charge will a magnesium ion have. Explain your answer.

 

Magnesium is in group 2 of the periodic table.

Magnesium ions have a charge of 2+ (Mg2+).

 

Because they lose two electrons to have a full outer shell.

8

What charge will a chloride ion have. Explain your answer.

 

Chlorine is in group 7 of the periodic table.

Chloride ions have a charge of 1- (Cl-).

 

Because they gain an electron to fill their outer shell.

9

What charge will an oxide ion have. Explain your answer.

 

Oxygen is in group 6 of the periodic table.

Oxide ions have a charge of 2- (O2-).

 

Because they gain two electrons to fill their outer shell.

10

What charge will a neon ion have. Explain your answer.

 

Neon is in group 0 of the periodic table.

Neon atoms do not form ions. 

 

Because they have a stable electronic structure/full outer shell of eletrons.

11

What happens when a metal atoms react with a non-metal atoms?

Electrons are transferred from the outer shell of the metal atom to the outer shell of the non-metal atom.

Forming oppsitely charged ions which are attracted to each other.

12

HIGHER:

What is the formula for sodium bromide? Explain your answer.

Sodium (Na) is in group 1

Bromine (Br) is in group 7

NaBr

Each sodium atom loses one electron (Na+) which is gained by a bromine atom (Br-)

 

13

HIGHER:

What is the formula for calcium oxide? Explain your answer.

Calcium (Ca) is in group 2

Oxygen (O) is in group 6

CaO

Each calcium atom loses two electron (Ca2+) which are gained by an oxygen atom (O2-)

 

14

HIGHER:

What is the formula for sodium oxide? Explain your answer.

Sodium (Na) is in group 1

Oxygen (O) is in group 6

Na2O

Two sodium atoms lose their outer electron (Na+), which are gained by an oxygen atom (O2-).

 

15

HIGHER:

What is the formula for calcium bromide? Explain your answer.

Calcium (Ca) is in group 2

Bromine (Br) is in group 7

CaBr2

Each calcium atom loses two electrons (Ca2+), which are gained by two bromine atoms (Br-).

 

16

What is the formula and charge of a hydroxide ion?

OH-

17

What is the formula and charge of a hydroxide ion?

OH-

18

TRIPLE

What is the formula (and charge) of a carbonate ion?

CO32-

19

TRIPLE

What is the formula (and charge) of a sulfate ion?

SO42-

20

What type of structure do solid ionic compounds have?

A giant lattice structure

21

Why are ionic compounds such as sodium chloride solid at room temperature?

The ions are in a giant lattice.

There are strong attractions between the oppositely charge ions.

It takes lots of energy to break the attractions/ionic bonds.

So they have high melting and boiling points.

 

 

 

22

In what states do ionic compunds like sodium chloride conduct electricity?

When they are...

  • Liquid/molten/melted
  • Aqueous/dissolved/in solution

23

Why do ionic compunds conduct electricity when they are liquid or aqueous?

The ions (charged particles) can move around.

So they can carry an electric current.

 

24

Covalent bonds are found...

In molecular elements (e.g O2, graphite) and compounds (CO2) made from non-metals.

25

Do covalent bonds involve...

 

  1. Sharing electrons
  2. Loss and gain of electrons
  3. Free electrons

Atoms share electrons.

To fil their outer shells.

26

Which of the following contain covalent bonds:

  1. Simple molecular substances (e.g carbon dioxide)
  2. Giant covalent structures (e.g graphite)
  3. Polymers (e.g DNA)
  4. Alloys

  1. Simple molecular substances (e.g carbon dioxide)
  2. Giant covalent structures (e.g graphite)
  3. Polymers (e.g DNA)

 

 

27

Which of the following are simple molecular substances and which are giant covalent structures?

Water, graphite, diamond, carbon dioxide, oxygen and methane.

Simple molecular substances: Water, carbon dioxide, oxygen and methane.

 

Giant covalent structures: Graphite and diamond.

28

Explain why simple molecular substances like water, carbon dioxide, oxygen, methane and nitrogen are liquids or gases at room temperature.

The molecules are held together by weak intermolecular forces.

It only takes a small amount of energy to overcome these forces.

They therefore have very low melting and boiling points.

29

Can small molecular substances conduct electricity.

 

Explain your answer.

No

 

Because the molecules have no ovedrall charge and they do not have free/delocalised electrons. 

 

 

30

What element are diamond and graphite made from?

Carbon