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1

Atomic structure (keywords) -
Atom

The smallest part of an element that can still be recognised as that element.

2

Atomic structure (keywords) -
Atomic number

The number of protons (which equals the number of electrons) in an atom. It is sometimes called the proton number.

3

Atomic structure (keywords) -
Electron

A tiny particle with a negative charge. Electrons orbit the nucleus of atoms or ions in shells.

4

Atomic structure (keywords) -
Isotope

Atoms that have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons.

5

Atomic structure (keywords) -
Mass number

Mass number the number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.

6

Atomic structure (keywords) -
Proton

A tiny positive particle found inside the nucleus of an atom.

7

Atomic structure (keywords) -
Nucleus (of an atom)

The very small and dense central part of an atom that contains protons and neutrons.

8

Atomic structure (keywords) -
Product

A substance made as a result of a chemical reaction.

9

Atomic structure (keywords) -
Reactant

A substance we start with before a chemical reaction takes place.

10

Atomic structure (keywords) -
Law of conservation of mass

The total mass of the products formed in a reaction is equal to the total mass of the reactants.

11

Key parts for periodic table -
Group 1

Alkali metal
Reactive metals
Always forms +1 ions

12

Key parts for periodic table -
Group 2

Alkali earth metals
Less reactive
Always form +2 ions

13

Key parts for periodic table -
Transition metals

Typical metals
Shiny, malleable & high melting points

14

Key parts for periodic table -
Group 7

Halogens
Reactive gases
Always form -1 ions

15

Key parts for periodic table -
Group 0

Noble gases
Unreactive
Full outer shells

16

Shells -
First shell maximum number of electrons

2

17

Shells -
Second shell maximum number of electrons

8

18

Shells -
Third shell maximum number of electrons

8

19

Periodic table electronic structure -
Period (row)

Number of rings

20

Periodic table electronic structure -
Group (column)

Electrons in outer shell

21

Periodic table electronic structure -
Atomic number

Total number of electrons

22

History of the atom -
Dalton

All atoms look the same

23

History of the atom -
Thomson

Plum pudding model

24

History of the atom -
Rutherford

Nuclear model

25

History of the atom -
Bohr

Electron shells

26

Subatomic particle -
Protons

Charge = +1
Mass = 1

27

Subatomic particle -
Electrons

Charge = -1
Mass = 1/1800

28

Subatomic particle -
Neutrons

Charge = 0
Mass = 1

29

Chromatography -
Purpose

Separate substrate from mixtures in solution.

30

Chromatography -
Key points

Use a pencil to draw the line
Solvent soaks up the paper
Mixtures separate based on solubility
The number of dots is the number of substances in the mixture
The distance they travel can be compared

31

Separating substances key words -
Compound

Two or more elements chemically combined

32

Separating substances key words -
Mixture

Two or more elements or compounds mixed but not reacted

33

Separating substances key words -
Pure

Only one type of substance (molecules or atoms)

34

Separating substances key words -
Distilation

Separation of a liquid from a mixture (evaporate -> condense)

35

Separating substances key words -
Filtration

Separation of an insoluble solid from a solution

36

Separating substances key words -
Crystallisation

Used to obtain pure salt from a solution by evaporation

37

Law of conservation of mass

Reactant = products
The total mass of the reactants formed in a reaction equal to the total mass of the products

38

Periodic table -
Lavousier

The earliest attempt. Grouped elements based on their properties into gases, non-metals and earths.

39

Periodic table -
Dobereiner

Recognised traids of elements with chemically similar properties. Only a few worked.

40

Periodic table -
Newlands

Law of Octaves. Similarities between every 8 elements. Only worked up to Ca.

41

Periodic table -
Mendeleev

Left gaps, arranged elements by atomic weight and chemical properties.

42

Periodic table -
Group 1

Name - alkali metals
Features - metal, reactive
Typical changes - +1

43

Periodic table -
Group 7

Name - halogens
Features - non-metal, reactive
Typical changes - -1

44

Periodic table -
Group 0 or 8

Name - noble gases
Features - gases/non-metal, reactive
Typical changes - 0

45

Periodic table -
Lithium with oxygen

- burns red flame
- white ash of lithium oxide

46

Periodic table -
Lithium with chlorine

- burns red flame
- white ash of lithium chloride

47

Periodic table -
Lithium with water

- floats, fizzes producing hydrogen gas
- produces colourless lithium hydroxide solution (alkali)

48

Periodic table -
Sodium with oxygen

- burns more vigorously with yellow flame
- white ash of sodium oxide

49

Periodic table -
Sodium with chlorine

- burns more vigorously with yellow flame
- white ash of sodium chloride

50

Periodic table -
Sodium with water

- floats and melts, fizzes producing hydrogen gas
- produces colourless sodium hydroxide solution

51

Periodic table -
Potassium with oxygen

- burns violently with lilac flame
- white ash of potassium oxide

52

Periodic table -
Potassium with chlorine

- burns violently with lilac flame
- white ash of potassium chloride

53

Periodic table -
Potassium with water

- floats, hydrogen gas sets on fire with lilac flame
- produces colourless potassium hydroxide solution

54

Periodic table -
Period definition

number of rings

55

Periodic table -
Group definintion

electrons in the outer shell

56

Periodic table -
Structure definition

number of electrons in each shell

57

chlorine + potassium bromide

2KCL + Br (small2)

58

chlorine + potassium iodine

2KCl + I (small2)

59

bromine + potassium chloride

no reaction

60

bromine + potassium iodine

2KBr + I (small2)

61

iodine + potassium chloride

no reaction

62

iodine + potassium bromide

no reaction

63

Size of atom

Larger atoms lose electrons more easily
Smaller atoms gain electrons more easily

64

Nuclear charge

The higher the atomic number the greater the charge

65

Electronic shielding

Complete shell block the positive charge from the nucleus, the more complete shells, the more the charge is blocked.

66

Displacement reactions

A reactive element can displace a less reactive ion from a compound. So the reactive element kicks out the ion, forming a new compound, and turning the ion into and element. If the element it less reactive than the ion, then it can't displace the ion and there will be no reaction.

67

Transition metals

- metals in the 'd block' of the periodic table
- typical metals, high m.p/b.p, shiny, good conductors, malleable, ductile.
- form colourful compounds
- ions have multiple charges
- make useful catalysts

68

Structures & bonding -
Alloy

A mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal. (brass)

69

Structure & bonding -
Covalent bond

The bond between two atoms that shares one or more pairs of electrons.

70

Structure & bonding -
Delocalised electron

A bonding electron that is no longer associated with any one particular atom.

71

Structure & bonding -
Gases

Substances that have no fixed shape or volume and can be compressed easily.

72

Structure & bonding -
Giant covalent structure

A huge 3D network of covalently bonded atoms

73

Structure & bonding -
Giant lattice

A huge 3D network of atoms or ions

74

Structure & bonding -
Intermolecular forces

The attraction between the individual molecules in a covalently bonded substance.

75

Structure & bonding -
Ionic bond

Bonds formed by the transfer of electrons and held together by the electrostatic force of attraction between positively and negatively charged ions.

76

Structure & bonding -
Liquids

Substances that have a fixed volume, but they can flow and change their shape.

77

Structure & bonding -
Polymer

Substance made from very large molecules made up of many repeating units (monomers).

78

Structure & bonding -
Solids

Substances that have a fixed shape and a volume that cannot be compressed.

79

Structure & bonding -
States of matter

The form in which matter can exist. A substance can be solid, liquid or gas.

80

Ionic bonding -
Ionic solid

- ions are in fixed positions in a giant lattice
- they vibrate but cannot move around
- it does not conduct electricity

81

Ionic bonding -
Molten ionic compound

- high temperature provides enough energy to overcome the many strong attractive forces between ions
- ions are free to move around within the molten compound
- it does conduct electricity

82

Ionic bonding -
Ionic compound in solution

- water molecules separate ions from the lattice
- ions are free to move around within the solution
- it does conduct electricity

83

Giant covalent molecules -
Graphite

- contains covalently bonded carbon atoms arranged in layers
- no covalent bonds
- between the layers there are weak intermolecular forces
- layers can slide over eachother
- soft and slippery
- delocalised electrons allows it to conduct electricity

84

Giant covalent molecules -
Diamond

- carbon atoms have a rigid giant covalent structure
- hard/solid

85

Simple covalent molecules

- Have a weak intermolecular force
- low melting and boiling points
- no overall charge
- no electrical charge
- cannot conduct electricity

86

Fullerenes

- used for drug delivery, lubricants and catalysts due to large surface area
- graphene is a single layer of graphite and so one atom thick
- good electrical conductivity

87

Metallic bonding

- atoms in metals are closely packed together in regular layers
- the positively charged metal ions are held together held by a 'sea' of electrons from the outer shell of each metal atom
- good conductors of electricity and thermal energy
- delocalised electron
- layers of metal ions can slide over eachother

88

Alloys

- a mixture of 2 or more elements
- at least one is a metal
- usually harder than pure metals because the regular layers in pure metal are dissorted by the atoms of different sizes in an alloy
- no layers can slide over one another

89

Relative mass & moles -
Mass number

Number of protons and neutrons

90

Relative mass & moles -
Isotopes

Same number of protons, different number of neutrons

91

Relative mass & moles -
Relative atomic mass

Mass of atom (Ar) compared to (12) C. So sodium (Na) = 23

92

Relative mass & moles -
Relative formula mass

The total of the relative atomic masses, added up in the ratio shown in the chemical formula, of a substance

93

Relative mass & moles -
Moles

The amount of substance in the relative atomic or formula mass of a substance in grams

94

Relative mass & moles -
Concentration

The amount of a substance dissolved in a given volume of liquid

95

Metal oxide

Metals react with oxide to produce metal oxides. This is an oxidation reaction

96

Displacement reaction

A more reactive metal can displace a less reactive metal from a compound

97

Oxidation

Two definitions
- chemicals are oxidised if they gain oxygen in a reaction
- chemicals are oxidised if they lose electrons in a reaction

98

Reduction

Two definitions
- chemicals are oxidised if they lose oxygen in a reaction
- chemicals are oxidised if they gain electrons in a reaction

99

Acid

A chemical that dissolves in water to produce H+ ions

100

Base

A chemical that reacts with acids and neutralise them

101

Alkali

A base that dissolves in water
produces OH- ions in a solution

102

Neurtralisation

When a neutral solution is formed from reacting and acid and an alkali.

103

pH

A scale to measure acidity/alkalinity

104

Strong acid (HT)

A strong acid is completely ionised in solution (e.g. hydrochloric, nitric and sulfuric acids

105

Weak acid (HT)

A weak acid is only partially ionised in solution (e.g. ethanoic, citric and carbonic acids

106

Potassium reaction

When potassium is added to water, the metal melts and floats. It moves around very quickly. The metal is also set on fire, with sparks and a lilac flame

107

Sodium reaction

When sodium is added to water, it melts to form a ball that moves around on the surface. It fizzes rapidly

108

Lithium reaction

When lithium is added to water, it floats. It fizzes steadily and becomes smaller

109

Calcium reaction

fizzes quickly with dilute acid

110

Magnesium reaction

fizzes quickly with dilute acid

111

Zinc reaction

bubbles slowly with dilute acid

112

Iron reaction

very slow reaction with dilute acid

113

Copper reaction

no reaction with dilute acid

114

Extracting metals -
very unreactive metals

found naturally in the ground
don't need extracting

115

Extracting metals -
metals less reactive than carbon

extracted by reduction with carbon

116

Extracting metals -
metals more reactive than carbon

extracted by electrolysis

117

Making a soluble salt

- add solid metal, metal carbonate, metal oxide or metal hydroxide to an acid
- add solid until no more reacts
- filter off excess solid
- evaporate to remove some of the water
- leave to crystallise
- remove all water in a desiccator / oven

118

Electrolysis definition

The process of splitting an ionic compound by passing electricity through it

119

Electrolyte definition

An ionic compound that is molten or dissolved in water. The ions are free to move

120

Electrode definition

An electrical conductor that is placed in the electrolyte and connected to the power supply

121

Cathode definition

The electrode attached to the negative terminal of the power supply

122

Anode definition

The electrode attached to the positive terminal of the power supply

123

Cathode descripition

- metal
- the metal if the metal is less reactive than hydrogen
- hydrogen is produced if the metal is more reactive than hydrogen

124

Anode description

- non-metal
- oxygen is produced unless the solution contains halide ions (chloride, bromide and iodide) when the halogen (chlorine, bromine and iodine) is being produced

125

Aluminium electrolysis -
Cryolite

Aluminium oxide is dissolved in cryolite to lower it's melting point. This saves money on energy costs.

126

Aluminium electrolysis -
Cathode

Positive Al (small3+) ions move to the cathode. Aluminium is produced Al (small 3+) + 3e = Al

127

Aluminium electrolysis -
Anode

Negative 0 (small2-) ions move to anode. Oxygen is made. 2O (small2) = O (small2) + 4e

128

Conservation of energy

Energy is not created or destroyed, only transferred from one store to another

129

Exothermic

A reaction that transfers energy to the surroundings so the temperature of the surroundings increases, e.g. combustion and neutralisation reactions. Used in self-heating cans and hand warmers

130

Endothermic

A reaction that takes energy in from the surroundings so the temperature of the surroundings decreases, e.g. thermal decomposition. Used in sports injury packs

131

Activation energy

The energy needed for particles to successfully react

132

Breaking bonds

Energy is needed to break bonds

133

Forming bonds

Energy is released when bonds are formed

134

Exothermic energy profile

Energy released from forming bonds is greater than the energy needed to break bonds

135

Endothermic energy profile

Energy release from forming bonds is less than the energy needed to break bonds