Biology paper 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Biology paper 1 Deck (147)
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1

Cells -
Contains genetic information that controls the functions of the cell.

Nucleus

2

Cells -
Controls what enters and leaves the nucleus.

Cell membrane

3

Cells -
Where many cell activities and chemical reactions in the cell occur.

Cytoplasm

4

Cells -
Provides energy from aerobic respiration

Mitochondria

5

Cells -
Synthesis (makes) proteins

Ribosome

6

Cells -
Where photosynthesis occurs

Chloroplast

7

Cells -
Used to store water and other chemicals as cell sap

Permanent vacuole

8

Cells -
Strengthens and supports the cell. (Made of cellulose in plants).

Cell wall

9

Cells -
A loop of DNA, not enclosed within a nucleus.

DNA loop

10

Cells -
A small circle of DNA, may contain genes associated with antibiotic resistance.

Plasmid

11

Cells -
Acrosome contains enzymes to break into egg; tail to swim; many mitochondria to provide energy to swim.

Sperm cell

12

Cells -
Long to transmit electrical impulses over a distance.

Nerve cell

13

Cells -
Contain protein fibres that can contract when energy is available, making the cells shorter.

Muscle cell

14

Cells -
Waterproofed cell wall; cells are hollow to allow water to move through.

Xylem cell

15

Cells -
Some cells have lots of mitochondria for active transport; some cells have very little cytoplasm for sugars to move through easily.

Phloem cell

16

Cells -
Long extension to increase surface area for water and mineral uptake; thin cell wall.

Root hair cell

17

Cells -
Contains: cytoplasm, nucleus, ribosome, mitochondria and cell membrane.

Animal cell

18

Cells -
Contains: cytoplasm, nucleus, ribosome, mitochondria, cell membrane, chloroplast, vacuole and cell wall.

Plant cell

19

Microscopy -
The degree by which an object is enlarged

Magnification

20

Microscopy -
The ability of a microscope to distinguish detail.

Resolution

21

Microscopy -
Basic microscope with a maximum magnification of 1500x. Low resolution.

Light microscope

22

Microscopy -
Microscope with a much higher magnification and resolving power than a light microscope. This means that it can be used to study cells in much finer detail.

Electron microscope

23

Mitosis and the cell cycle

- Number of sub-cellular structures increase
- Number of chromosomes double
- One set of chromosomes is pulled to each end of the cell
- The nucleus divides
- Cytoplasm and cell membranes divide to form two identical cells

24

Stem cells -
Can divide into most types of cells
Used for therapeutic cloning

Embryonic stem cells

25

Stem cells -
Can divide into a limited number of cells

Adult stem cell

26

Stem cells -
Found in plants
Can differentiate (divide) into any type of plant cell

Meristem

27

Pros of using stem cells

Treatment of diseases such as diabetes, dementia and paralysis

28

Cons of using stem cells

Ethical and religious objections
Can transfer viruses held within cells

29

Transport across membranes -
Diffusion definition

Spreading out of the particles resulting in a net movement from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration

30

Transport across membranes -
Diffusion use

Oxygen and carbon dioxide in gas exchange (leaves and alveoli)
Urea from cells into the blood plasma for excretion in the kidney