Flashcards in Biology paper 1 Deck (147)
Contains genetic information that controls the functions of the cell.
Controls what enters and leaves the nucleus.
Where many cell activities and chemical reactions in the cell occur.
Provides energy from aerobic respiration
Synthesis (makes) proteins
Where photosynthesis occurs
Used to store water and other chemicals as cell sap
Strengthens and supports the cell. (Made of cellulose in plants).
A loop of DNA, not enclosed within a nucleus.
A small circle of DNA, may contain genes associated with antibiotic resistance.
Acrosome contains enzymes to break into egg; tail to swim; many mitochondria to provide energy to swim.
Long to transmit electrical impulses over a distance.
Contain protein fibres that can contract when energy is available, making the cells shorter.
Waterproofed cell wall; cells are hollow to allow water to move through.
Some cells have lots of mitochondria for active transport; some cells have very little cytoplasm for sugars to move through easily.
Long extension to increase surface area for water and mineral uptake; thin cell wall.
Root hair cell
Contains: cytoplasm, nucleus, ribosome, mitochondria and cell membrane.
Contains: cytoplasm, nucleus, ribosome, mitochondria, cell membrane, chloroplast, vacuole and cell wall.
The degree by which an object is enlarged
The ability of a microscope to distinguish detail.
Basic microscope with a maximum magnification of 1500x. Low resolution.
Microscope with a much higher magnification and resolving power than a light microscope. This means that it can be used to study cells in much finer detail.
Mitosis and the cell cycle
- Number of sub-cellular structures increase
- Number of chromosomes double
- One set of chromosomes is pulled to each end of the cell
- The nucleus divides
- Cytoplasm and cell membranes divide to form two identical cells
Stem cells -
Can divide into most types of cells
Used for therapeutic cloning
Embryonic stem cells
Stem cells -
Can divide into a limited number of cells
Adult stem cell
Stem cells -
Found in plants
Can differentiate (divide) into any type of plant cell
Pros of using stem cells
Treatment of diseases such as diabetes, dementia and paralysis
Cons of using stem cells
Ethical and religious objections
Can transfer viruses held within cells
Transport across membranes -
Spreading out of the particles resulting in a net movement from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration