How many pairs of ribs are they? what do these articulate with posteriorly?
there are 12 pairs of ribs. these articulate posteriorly with the verterbral column.
what do the uppermost ten pairs of ribs articulate with?
articulate posteriorly with the verterbral column and anteriorly with the sternum
what are true ribs? which ribs are true ribs?
true ribs are directly attached to the sternum.
these are ribs 1-7
what are false ribs? which ribs are false ribs?
these ribs do not directly attach to the sternum.
these are ribs 8- 12
which ribs are floating ribs?
ribs 11 and 12
where is the sternal angle?
is with the first 4 vetebrae.
What are the three parts of the sternum?
the xiphoid process
what is the sternoclavicular joint?
it's between the sternum and clavicle
what is the clavicle?
what is the scapula?
the shoulder blade
what is the pectoral girdle?
the scapula and the clavicle
what is the suprsternal notch?
also known as the jugular notch, it is the large visible dip between the nech and the collarbone
what is the clavicular notch?
it is a notch on either side of the upper manubrium, this is the site of articulation between the manubrium and clavicle
what parts of the rib are there?
how can you identify the external intercostal muscles?
they face downwards and forwards
how can you identify the internal intercostal muscles?
they face upwards and backwards at 90 degrees.
what vein, artery and nerve supply the intercostals?
the intercostal vein , the intercostal artery and the intercostal nerve.
what does the phrenic nerve supply?
supplies the diaphragm
what does the vagus nerve supply?
the thoracic viscera.
describe the right lung
3 lobes, two fissures, larger than the left lung.
describe the left lung
2 lobes, one fissure, smaller than the right lung. cardiac notch can be seen
what is the pericardium of the heart attached to?
the heart and also to the diapragm
what comes off of the arch of the aorta?
the brachiocephalic trunk, the left common carotid and the left subclavian.
what is the brachicephalic trunk?
the artery of the mediastinum, it supplies the right arm, head and neck.
what comes of the brachicephalic trunk?
the right subclavian and right common corotid arteries
what do the common carotid arteries supply?
the head and neck
what do the subclavian arteries supply and what do these come off?
the right subclavian comes off the brachicephalic trunk and supplies the blood to the right arm with some branches going to the head and neck
the left subclavian comes of the aortta and supplies blood to the left arm
what's the role of the superior vena cava?
carries unoxygenated blood to the heart
what does the phrenic nerve come from and where does it go to?
goes from the neck, past the heart down to the diaphragm.
what does the vagus nerve do?
supplies many organs goes down by the diaphragm
what is the hilus of the lung?
it's where the bronchus, the pulmanory artery and the pulmanory vein enter the lungs
what is the role of the pulmanory artery?
it brings unoxygenated blood from the right ventricle into the lung
what is the role of the pulmanory vein?
it bring oxygenated blood from te lungs to the left atrium
on which lung(S) is a superior lobe seen?
on both the right and left lungs
on what lungs is there a middle lobe?
only on the right lung.
on what lung(s) is there and inferior lobe?
on both the right and left lung
what is the lingula? where is it located?
it is the "little tongue" it is located on the left lung
what's the function of the main bronchi?
to bring air into the lungs
where does the trachae split into the right and left bronchi?
what is the role of the bronchial arteries?
to supply the lungs with oxygenated blood. usually one to the left and one to the right lung.
what does the superior mediastinum contain?(8)
arch of the aorta
right and left common carotid arteries
right and left subclavian arteries
internal jugular vein
what does the posterior mediastinum contain? (8)
the decending aorta
ribs and thoracic vertebra
central tendon of the diaphragm
Which lung is this?
at what throcacic level does this horizontal fissure usually lie?
the right lung
this is at the level of the 4th rib
which part of the vertabra is this?
it's the transverse process
what is this?
name the three parts of this structure
what is this joint?
what lies at the level of this joint?
the menubrium, the body and the xiphoid process.
the sternal angle
the level at which the trachea splits into the right and left bronchi.
In this picture of the heart and lungs viewed from behind (posterior view) what stucture causes the impression on the left lung indicated by the arrow?
the descending aorta
In this view of the hilum of the right lung, what is the structure indicated?
Which fissure is this?
oblique fissure of the left lung
In this oblique view of the left chest with the left lung removed, what is the structure indicated?
the phrenic nerve
what is it being pointed to in the image?
is one of the internal intercostal muscles
what structure is this and what is it innervated by?
this is the diaphragm, it is innervated by the phrenic
what is this structure?
At what point in the body does this bifurcation normally occur?
it is the trachea
bifurcation usually occurs at the level of the 4th thoracic vertebra