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Flashcards in Child development Deck (16):
1

Erikson's psychosocial theory of development

1. First year= Trust vs mistrust
2. Second year= Autonomy vs doubt
Sense of self->ability to control bodily functions
Explore and brief separation
3. Three-Five years= Initiative vs guilt
Relationship with same sex parent
Fantasy
4. Six years-puberty = Industry vs inferiority
Learning and doing
Parents not longer the only authority
5. Adolescence= Identity vs role confusion
6. Early adulthood= Intimacy vs isolation
Mature individuals chose the vulnerability of intimacy over the loneliness of isolation
7. Middle adulthood= Generativity vs self absorption
8. Ageing years= Integrity vs despair.

2

Attachment types

1. Secure
Sad when leave, happy when return
Enduring capacity to regulate, generate and maintain states of emotional security
2. Anxious-ambivalent
Sad when leave, not sure if can trust when return
3. Avoidant
Not to worried, avoid parent when return
4. Disorganised
Mother with drawn
Child difficult when return

3

Jean Piaget cognitive development stages

1. Sensorimotor 0-2 years
Rudimentary thinking, object permenance 7-9 months
Deferred imitation
2. Preoperational 2-6/7
Maths
In early stage X master concept of conservation
Lack theory of mind
Egocentric
3. Concrete operational 7-11
Concept of conservation
Reasoning logical
Flexible
Symbolic thought
4. Formal operational 11 +
Abstracts
Hypothetical
Not always reached

4

Developmental tasks of adolescence

1. Cognitive maturity
2. Negotiate school
3. Leisure, care for self
4. Emotional maturity
5. Boundaries, peers
6. Independant
7. Identity
9. Life schemas, sense of the future
10. Physical changes

5

What is id, ego and superego

1. Id is our nervous system, our underlying drives and instincts->Anxiety when overwhelmed
2. Ego is reality through consciousness
Searches for objects to meet needs of Id
3. Superego represents society, reality, morality->communicates with ego to = pride, shame, guilt

6

Freudian stages

1. Oral: birth-18 months
2. Anal: ->3 years
3. Phallic: 3-6 years
4. Latency: 6-13
5. Genital: 13+

7

Importance of attachment

1. Hard wired for relationships
2. Safety
3. Security
4. Learning how those around us will react
5. Sharing positive emotional states with caregivers promotes brain growth

8

Hierachical development of brain

1. Existence at brainstem->safety
2. Arousal at diencephalon->movement
3. Attachment at limbic->emotional engagement
Sexual
Emotional reactivity
Motor regulation
4. Abstract thought at neocortex->learning

9

Components of the limbic system

1. Amygdala
Friendship
Love
Affection
Fear, rage, aggression
2. Hippocampus
Memory
3. Thalamus
4. Hypothalamus
Expression of emotions (sympathetic)
5. Brainstem
EMotional reflex reactions

10

Managing behaviour

1. Stepping aside from confrontation
2. Structure and supervision
3. Playfulness, acceptance, curiosity, empathy
4. Helping children enjoy

11

When does self regulation occur and why

1. Occurs 12-18 months
Aware of social demands
Can change behaviour when parent asks
Need adult nearby
2. At 24 months->children develop self control, can follow parents wishes when they're not around
3. At 36 months->can internalise parent guidance, act in a way they think their parent would want them to

12

Emotion regulation areas of brain responsible

1. Orbital PFC
2. VM PFC
3. DL PFC
4. Amygdala
5. Anterior cingulate cortex

13

Function of PFC

1. Social learning and relationships
2. Emotional regulation
3. Recognise and translate facial expression
4. Empathy
5. Inhibits behaviour
6. Binding and attachment
7. Personality and sense of identity

14

Impact areas of Trauma, abuse, neglect

1. Attachment
2. Biology
3. Affect regulation
4. Dissociation
5. Behaviour control
6. Cognition
7. Self-concept

15

Empathy

1. Emotional empathy->feeling
2. Cognitive empathy->understanding->theory of mind

16

Kohlbergs model of moral development

Level 1 Up to 10yo->Preconventional
1. Obedience and punishment orientation
2. Individualism and exchange->conformity to obtain rewards

Level 11 10-13->Conventional
3. Good interpersonal relationships. conform to avoid disapproval of others
4. Maintaining social order, laws obeyed, authority respected

Level 111 13->Adult, post-conventional
5. Social contract and individual rights->start to recognise viewpoints of others
6. Universal principles->justice