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Flashcards in Child development Deck (9)
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Outline development in the new-born

-Nerve cells are present but in an undeveloped state
-Growth& development occurs in an experience dependent way e.g amblyopia
-Perceptual/motor development-initially limited repertoire but rapid& orderly development


List the pre-natal risk factors in brain development

-Maternal health
-Infection, TORCH;aids
-Maternal substance misuse
-Maternal age
-Maternal mental health
-Environmental toxins


List the post-natal risk factors in brain development

-Birth complications
-CNS infection
-Environmental toxins


Describe the prenatal effects to brain development

1.) Induction( dorsal) weeks 3-4
-Myelomeningocele( spina bifida). Failure of closure of the spinal cord. Arises from genetic or nutritional. Results in motor& perceptual deficits
2.)Induction(ventral) weeks 5-6
-Holoprescencephaly. Failure to form 2 hemispheres. Often genetic origin. Usually incompatible with life
3.)Proliferation 2-5 months
-Microencephaly, Early cessation of cell division--->abnormally small head. Genetic or trauma factors eg infection, fetal alcohol syndrome. Associated with low intellectual abilities


Outline the 5 stages of language development

1.) preverbal communication
2.) Phonological development
3.) Semantic development
4.) Syntax& grammar development
5.) Pragmatics development


Outline the different types of learning

1.) Classical conditioning:
-behaviours acquired through the process of associative learning between 2 stimuli
-Pavlov's dogs
2.) Operant conditioning:
-Behaviours acquired through the process of positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, or punishment


What are the 4 key concepts of developing cognitive thinking skills?

1.) Scheme: internal cognitive structure which provides procedure to use in specific circumstances
2.) Assimilation: process of using scheme to make sense of event or experience
3.) Accomodation: Changing scheme as result of new info
4.) Equilibrium: process of balancing assimilation & accomodation to create schemes that fit the environment


What are the 4 stages of developing cognitive thinking skills?

1.) Sensorimotor(0-2yrs)
2.) Preoperational(2-6/7yrs)
3.) Concrete operations(6/7-11/12yrs)
4.) Formal operations(11/12yrs+)


When is the critical period of attachment

6 months-2 years