Flashcards in Child development - cognition and intelligence Deck (24):
What is the sensorimotor stage?
6 sub-stages. Knowing the physical environment by seeing and touching – ‘thinking only by doing’.
What is object permanence?
The understanding that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be observed (seen, heard, touched, smelled or sensed in any way).
When does an infant acquire object permanence?
Around 8 months
Give examples of abilities at 8 months.
Obeys simple requests
Points to objects and follows the pointing
gesture of an adult
Hold cup to doll’s mouth
Demonstrates affection by hugging and kissing
Shakes head or says “no” in refusal
What are schemas?
Theories about how the physical and social world operate.
What is assimilation?
Understanding a new object.
What is accommodation?
Modifying a schema.
What are features of pre-operational thought?
Centration - thinking about one idea at a time to the exclusion of others
Egocentrism - self-centred world view, difficulty taking another's perspective.
What is the 3 mountain problem?
Place two children at opposite sides of a model of three mountains. Only able to describe the view of the other at 6-7 years. Rigidity of pre-operational thought.
Mental consideration of information in a logical manner.
Understanding that amount is unrelated to appearance. Eg two lumps of clay can be different shapes but have the same mass.
What is concrete operational?
Thinking in relation to things that are real
or imaginable (direct sensory access).
What is formal operational?
Reasoning in purely symbolic terms
Consider alternatives and plan ahead
Systematic testing of hypotheses
What are the verbal IQ components of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale?
Vocabulary, similarities, information and digit span.
What are the performance components of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale?
Picture arrangement, matrix reasoning, block design and digit symbol coding.
What are the domains of cognitive function as defined by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale?
Verbal comprehension, performance organisation, working memory and processing speed.
What are the uses of IQ tests?
Predict school performance and job success. Identify educational needs. Assessing head trauma.
What are the limitations of IQ tests?
Is IQ stable? Influenced by environment and culture. Does not measure underlying competence.
What is a commissurotomy?
Splitting the brain across the corpus callosum.
What was the relevance of split brain research?
Their is a contra-lateral rule in visual perception. Speech centre is in the left hemisphere. If split brain patient is shown an image only on the left they can't see it.
What is the left hemisphere responsible for?
Complex language functions
Complex logical activities
What are the functions of the right hemisphere?
Simple language functions
Spatial and pattern abilities
What are Piaget's stages?
Sensorimotor: birth - 2 years
Pre-operational: 2 - 7 years
Concrete operational: 7 - 11 years
Formal operational: 11 years +