Child Development: Toddler Flashcards Preview

Med 2 - Week 40 > Child Development: Toddler > Flashcards

Flashcards in Child Development: Toddler Deck (42)
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1

What are the 5 stages of play development? What years do they occur in?

1. Solitary play - birth to 2
2. Spectator - 2 years
3. Parallel play - 2+ years
4. Associative play - 3 to 4 years
5. Cooperative play - 4+ years

2

what is symbolic play?

type of play where the child uses one thing to stand in for another

3

What is symbolic play linked to?

closely linked to language development
- emerges when children have their first words
- if children are struggling with language development they may struggle with pretend play

4

What are the 5 stages of pretend play development? What ages are they associated with?

1. Self pretend (12-18 months)
2. Simple pretend (18-24 months)
3. Series of familiar actions (24-30 months)
4. Series of less familiar actions (30-36 months)
5. Role playing with other children (3-5 years)

5

What are some features of cognitive development in preschoolers?

Increasing symbolic thought --> being to grasp dual representation

Egocentric thinking

Animistic and magical thinking

6

At the preschooler age, are children generally able to conceptualize conservation (ie. same amount of water in two different containers will look different)

Not yet

7

Cognitive Development milestones: 2-3 years

1. matches shapes and colours
2. completes a foam board
3. points to self in pictures

8

Cognitive Development milestones: 3 years

1. draws a 2-3 part person
2. knows own gender and age
3. matches letters and numbers
4. understands long/short, big/small, more/less

9

Cognitive Development milestones: 4 years

1. draws 4-6 part person
2. points to letters/numbers when named
3. Counts to 4
4. Knows 4 colours
5. can "read" common signs

10

Cognitive Development milestones: 5 years

1. Draws an 8-10 part person
2. Counts to 10, knows 10 colours
3. Can read 25 words

11

What are two key features of speech and language development that happen at the preschool age?

1. Vocabulary increases rapidly from 50-100 words to >2000 words

2. Sentence structure advances
* # words in a sentence roughly equals the child's age

12

What is the best indicator of cognitive development in infancy/childhood?

Language development

13

Language milestones: 2 years

1. 2 word sentences
2. Follows 2 step directions
3. approx 200 words
4. speech is 50% intelligible

14

Language milestones: 3 years

1. 3-5 word sentences
2. follows 3 step commands
3. short conversations
4. can ask what and why questions
5. 75% intelligible
6. knows 3 pieces of self info (name, age, sex)

15

Language milestones: 4-5 years

1. 1000+ words
2. sentences with complex grammatical features
3. 100% intelligible
4. meaningful conversations
5. Can tell stories
6. starting to learn to read
7. can differentiate between literal and non-literal meanings

16

What % of preschoolers will have speech/language delays?

16%

17

What % of school aged children have language disorders?

2-3%

18

What % of school aged children have speech disorders?

3-6%

19

What are 4 risk factors associated with language/speech delays?

1. Lower SES
2. Male gender
3. Genetics/Family hx
4. Premature birth

20

What test needs to be ordered first for a child with language/speech delay?

Hearing assessment

21

What are some speech/language red flags at 3 years old?

1. Not independently combining words into 3-4 word sentences
2. Can't answer simple questions
3. consistently leaving off first/last sounds in words
4. frequent errors in vowel sounds
5. stuttering for more than 6 months

22

What are some speech/language red flags at 4-5 years?

1. Not independently producing 4-5 word complex sentences
2. Peers/adults don't consistently understand speech
3. Doesn't answer the 5 'W' questions
4. Doesn't tell simple stories about recent events.

23

What are some general features of gross motor development in preschool aged children?

Most can run and walk well

Beyond this age there is a wide variating in ability

24

Gross motor milestones age: 3 years

1. walks and runs well
2. balances on each foot for 3 seconds
3. pedals tricycle
4. walks up stairs, alternates feet with no railing
5. catches ball with stiff arms

25

Gross motor milestones age: 4 years

1. balances on one for for 4-8 seconds
2. hops on one foot 2-3 times
3. catches bounced ball

26

Gross motor milestones age: 5

1. balances on one foot > 8 seconds
2. hops on one foot 15 times
3. walks downstairs with rail, alternating feet
4. Skips
5. rides a two wheeler

27

Fine motor milestones age: 3 years

1. 10 cube tower and can imitate a "bridge" of cubes
2. handedness usually established
3. can copy a cross

28

Fine motor milestones age: 4 years

1. draws person with 2-4 parts
2. copies square

29

Fine motor milestones age: 5 years

1. imitates "steps" with blocks
2. copies triangle
3. cuts with scissors
4. writes first name

30

What is temperament?

a child's behavioural style which determines how they respond to various situations and express and regulate their emotions