Childhood Development Disorders and Autism Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Childhood Development Disorders and Autism Deck (41):
1

ADHD
Onset

Childhood onset, usually by age 12

2

ADHD
Ratio M:F

M > F
10:1

3

ADHD
Symptoms

Inattention- trouble paying attention/listening; losing things; careless mistakes

Hyperactivity- fidgeting, squirming, running or climbing a lot

Impulsivity- no forethought before behavior; impatient; interrupts others

Disruption of functioning across settings (school and home)

4

ADHD
Caused by....

Low dopamine levels

5

ADHD
Treatment

Stimulants: Methylphenidate

Nonstimulants: Atomoxetine

6

ADHD
Diagnostic criteria

Symptom onset > 12 years, duration >6 months

2 or more settings

Either Predominantly Inattentive, Hyperactive/Impulsive, or Combined

7

ODD
Symptoms

-Often loses temper and argues
-Hostile, defiant behavior towards authority
-Annoys others
-Spiteful and vindictive
-Anger guided disobedience

8

Conduct Disorder
Symptoms

"More severe form of ODD"

Often bullies others
Destroys property
Animal cruelty
Starts fights
Skips school

9

What is a tic?

Involuntary, sudden and rapid movement or vocalization

May occur under stress

10

Tourette's Disorder
Onset and M:F ratio

Onset: mean age 7

M: F = 3:1

11

Tourette's Disorder
Cause

Increased Dopamine

12

Tourette's Disorder
What is it?

Multiple motor and vocal tics, occurring every day or intermittently for over 1 year

13

Tourette's Disorder
Treatment

Haloperidol

Clonidine

14

Separation Anxiety Disorder
Ages

Mostly age 7-11

15

Separation Anxiety Disorder
Symptoms

Fear, anxiety, avoidance when away from attachment figure persistent for over 1 month

Constant thoughts and fear of something bad happening to parents

School refusal (for fear of parents being harmed)

16

Describe Systematic Desensitization

Based on classical conditioning

Used to treat anxiety and phobias

Goal: replace anxiety with relaxation

Try to relax the person in presence of the feared stimulus

17

Describe Biofeedback

Based on operant conditioning

Using external stimuli to modify internal physiologic stress

Trail-and-error learning and repeated practice to

18

Why is treating developmental issues early very important?

Family problems from childhood and adolescence affect brain development and can lead to mental health issues later in life

19

Infants
Smiling

Smile is an innate reflex at birth

Infants show exogenous smiling in response to a face at 8 weeks

Social smile at 12-16 weeks

20

Infants
When do first words typically occur? First steps?

First words - 10 months

First steps- 13 months

21

Infants
Stranger Anxiety

Distress in presence of unfamiliar people

Appears at 6 months
Peaks at 8 months
Gone after 12 months

22

Infants
When should normal separation anxiety disappear by?

By age 2

23

What is resilience?

Qualities that help a person withstand many negative aspects of adversity

24

What is child abuse and when should it be reported?

Tissue damage, neglect, sexual exploitation, or mental cruelty

Report if suspected

25

What are some clinical signs of child abuse?

Broken bones in 1st yr of life

STDs in young kids

Soft tissue injury (burn, bruise, laceration)

26

What children are at highest risk for abuse?

Younger than 4yo

Special needs (intellectual disability, learning disability, other mental illness, chronic physical illness)

27

Children who are abused are more likely to...

Be aggressive in classroom

Perceive others as hostile

Solve problems with aggression

Be unpopular with peers
Have friends who tend to be younger

28

Risk Factors for Childhood sexual abuse

-Single parent families
-Marital conflict
-Parent or child with history of physical abuse
-Social isolation

29

Intellectual Disability
How does it present?

Developmental delay

30

Intellectual Disability
Symptoms

Deficits in intelletual function

Deficits in adaptive behavior (not meeting standards for personal infependence)

31

Intellectual Disability
Most common known cause...

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

32

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Facial characteristics

Small eye openings

Smooth philtrum

Thin upper lip

33

Intellectual Disability
Most common genetic causes...

Down Syndrome

Fragile X Syndrome

34

ASD
When is the diagnosis made? Why?

M:F Ratio?

Diagnosis before age 3

Often diagnosed due to 1. social relatedness and connectivity or 2. restricted activities or interests

M:F = 3:1

35

ASD
Genetic Links and Potential Causes

Chr 15
Chr 11
(Monozygotic > Dizygotic twins)

Assoc with prenatal and perinatal injury

Increased risk if mom had allergies, asthma, or psoriasis while pregnant

36

ASD
Cormorbid diseases

EEG and seizure disorders

37

ASD Clinical Signs

Deficits in reciprocal social interaction

Decreased activities and interests

Delayed language development, impairment in verbal and nonverbal communication

No separation anxiety

Shrinks from touch

Stereotyped behavior and interests

38

Rett Syndrome
M:F Ratio?

General development and symptoms

Girls > Boys

Initial development normal, then get REGRESSION

Symptoms: Hand wringing, small hands and feet, microcephaly

39

Asperger's Syndrome
Symptoms

Language normal
IQ normal
Higher level of functioning

Impaired social interactions and social cues

40

Special Education Needs mandate that each child with developmental disabilities gets an...

IEP
-Speech therapy
-Occupational therapy
-Communication assistance devices
-Specific teaching techniques for autism

41

What is "Shaping"?

Based on operant conditioning

Rewarding successive approximations to the desired behavior

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