Flashcards in Childhood Poverty Deck (23):
What is the poorest demographic group in the US? In the past?
Used to be elderly, but now medicare
children are the poorest now.
What are the 2 methods of defining poverty?
income (absolute) standard--you make less than $/yr
relative standard--you make less than X% of the median income
What is the income/absolute standard of poverty in the US (FPL)?
Family of 4 $24,250
but families need twice that level to meet basic needs
What is the poverty rate for children?
22% of children live in poverty
under 5 yo, 1/4 in poverty
Which ethnicities are more likely to be poor as a child?
T/F Children of single mothers are 4X as likely to be poor.
What are some of the dangers of poverty in children?
Parental drug abuse
Lead poisoning, environmental toxins
Learning and behavior problems
Increased injury, death
T/F Incidence of child neglect & maternal depression higher in poverty.
What % of kids live in food-insecure households?
HOw does NV rank in child well-being?
28% of children in “food-insecure” households (8th highest).
50th in investment in childhood education.
47th in investment in childhood health.
44th in indicators of family & community strength.
Talk about how school readiness relates to low SES.
Low SES-->less kindergarten readiness & lower high school graduation rates.
T/F Poor parents talk to their children less.
True. And this affects IQ at age 3.
Why is toxic stress in early childhood so damaging?
**synaptic remodeling: synaptic proliferation & pruning mainly determined during the critical period (first 3 yrs)
By age 10, what does an intelligent child's brain look like?
thin cortex with great surface area
Where do you see less grey matter in poor children?
frontal & parietal lobes
Hippocampus & poverty?
underdeveloped hippocampus when poor as child
impaired memory, learning, and mood control; decreases ability to discriminate safety vs. danger.
Major long term effect of toxic stress as a kid?
decreased glucocorticoid receptors in the hippocampus that binds cortisol
higher stress response, can't calm down as well
Mice experiments: well cared for, GR gene demethylated, more GR protein, more calm.
T/F Children in poverty have lower levels of DNA methylation on the GR gene that codes for glucocorticoid receptors.
False. Higher levels of methylation
less making of GR protein.
more stress response
Which things does chronically elevated cortisol cause?
Impaired cognitive performance
Decreased bone density
Decreased muscle mass
Lowered immune function
Slow wound healing
Increased abdominal fat
What are some neg. adult health outcomes that are more likely if Adverse Childhood Experiences?
Cardiovascular mortality and risk factors (hypertension, elevated cholesterol)
Chronic respiratory illness
Disability and longstanding illness
T/F Higher mortality if born into poverty.
T/F Health effects of childhood poverty overcome by later wealth.