Childhood Poverty Flashcards Preview

Block 11; Week 1 > Childhood Poverty > Flashcards

Flashcards in Childhood Poverty Deck (23):
1

What is the poorest demographic group in the US? In the past?

Used to be elderly, but now medicare
children are the poorest now.

2

What are the 2 methods of defining poverty?

income (absolute) standard--you make less than $/yr
relative standard--you make less than X% of the median income

3

What is the income/absolute standard of poverty in the US (FPL)?

Family of 4 $24,250
but families need twice that level to meet basic needs

4

What is the poverty rate for children?

22% of children live in poverty
under 5 yo, 1/4 in poverty

5

Which ethnicities are more likely to be poor as a child?

African American
Native American
hispanic

6

T/F Children of single mothers are 4X as likely to be poor.

True.

7

What are some of the dangers of poverty in children?

Maternal depression
Insecure attachment
Abuse, neglect
Parental drug abuse
Domestic violence
Lead poisoning, environmental toxins
Premature birth
Poor nutrition
Learning and behavior problems
Increased injury, death

8

T/F Incidence of child neglect & maternal depression higher in poverty.

True.

9

What % of kids live in food-insecure households?

1/4

10

HOw does NV rank in child well-being?

28% of children in “food-insecure” households (8th highest).
50th in investment in childhood education.
47th in investment in childhood health.
44th in indicators of family & community strength.

11

Talk about how school readiness relates to low SES.

Low SES-->less kindergarten readiness & lower high school graduation rates.

12

T/F Poor parents talk to their children less.

True. And this affects IQ at age 3.

13

Why is toxic stress in early childhood so damaging?

**synaptic remodeling: synaptic proliferation & pruning mainly determined during the critical period (first 3 yrs)
**epigenetics

14

By age 10, what does an intelligent child's brain look like?

thin cortex with great surface area

15

Where do you see less grey matter in poor children?

frontal & parietal lobes

16

Hippocampus & poverty?

underdeveloped hippocampus when poor as child

impaired memory, learning, and mood control; decreases ability to discriminate safety vs. danger.

17

Major long term effect of toxic stress as a kid?

HPA axis!!
decreased glucocorticoid receptors in the hippocampus that binds cortisol
higher stress response, can't calm down as well
Mice experiments: well cared for, GR gene demethylated, more GR protein, more calm.

18

T/F Children in poverty have lower levels of DNA methylation on the GR gene that codes for glucocorticoid receptors.

False. Higher levels of methylation
less making of GR protein.
more stress response

19

Which things does chronically elevated cortisol cause?

Hypertension
Hyperglycemia
Growth suppression
Impaired cognitive performance
Decreased bone density
Sleep disruption
Decreased muscle mass
Lowered immune function
Slow wound healing
Increased abdominal fat

20

What are some neg. adult health outcomes that are more likely if Adverse Childhood Experiences?

Cardiovascular mortality and risk factors (hypertension, elevated cholesterol)
Obesity
Diabetes
Chronic respiratory illness
Stomach cancers
Dental problems
Tobacco smoking
Disability and longstanding illness

21

T/F Higher mortality if born into poverty.

True.

22

T/F Health effects of childhood poverty overcome by later wealth.

False.

23

What did the UK do to reduce childhood poverty in children?

***Promoting work/making work pay
Minimum wage, working tax credit, reduced payroll taxes
***Increased financial support for ALL families with children
Child tax credits, child care support, more benefits if younger children, child trust funds
***Increased services for children
Universal preschool, increased maternity/paternity leave, home visitation, reduced class sizes