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Flashcards in Chp 1 Deck (67):
1

Anatomy

study of the internal and external structure and shape of the body and its parts and their relationships to one another

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Microscopic anatomy

structures that cannot be seen with the naked eye- cells and tissues of the body can only be seen through a microscope

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whats the subdivision of the microscopic anatomy known as?

cytology- analyzes the internal structure of individual cells
histology- takes a broader perspective and examines TISSUES- groups of specialized cells and cell products that work together to perform a particular function

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gross anatomy

large, easily observable structures , visible with unaided eye

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many was to approach gross anatomy

surface anatomy or topographic anatomy is the study of the surface of the body, including visible and palpable landmarks

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regional anatomy

superficial and internal features in specific body region, such as the head, neck or trunk

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systemic anatomy

structures of major organ systems, which are groups of organs that function together to produce coordinated effects

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anatomical position

body is erect with feet parallel, arms hanging at the sides with the palms facing forward

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flowers position

lying on back with upper part of body elevated 45 degree or greater angle

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semi fowlers

at an angle less than 45 degrees

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ventral

or anterior, toward or at the front of the body, in front of

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dorsal

(posterior) toward or at the backside of the body, behind. the top of the foot is considered dorsal

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medial

toward or at the mid line of the body, inner side of

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lateral

away from the midline of the body

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cranial or cephalic

toward the head

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caudal

means toward the tail or buttocks

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superior

toward the top of the body

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inferior

toward the bottom of the body

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palmar

(volar) front of

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plantar

bottom of the foot

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flexion

act of bending

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extension

act of straightening

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pronation

act of rotating the arm, bringing the palm hand facing downward

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supination

rotating the arm, bringing the palm facing up

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opposition

movement where the thumb pad is brought toward the finger pad and held there

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reposition

thumb from a position of opposition back to its anatomical position

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protraction

movement forward, occurs when the jaw is moved forward or the shoulders are drawn forward

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retraction

movement backward, moving the jaw backward or drawing the shoulders backward

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circumduction

draw around, or form a circle

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dosiflexion

flexion at the ankle, standing on the heels

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plantar flexion

standing on the tiptoes

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eversion of the foot

movement of the plantar surface of the foot away from the median plane of the body

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inversion of the foot

plantar surface of the foot toward the dedian plane of the body

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buttock

gluteal

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groin

inguinal

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shoulder

acromial

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forearm

atebrachial

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hand

manual

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leg

crural

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calf

sural

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manus

hand

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mental

fascial space of the head and neck

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sagittal plane

median plane, parallels long axis of the body, but it extends from front to back.
lengthwise or longitudinal, dividing left to right section
-equal sized halves, is a midsagittal

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transverse plane

horizontal plane, or cross section
-lies at a right angle to the long axis of the body.
- divides organ or body superior and inferior

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sectional planes

any slice though three dimensional object

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coronal plane

frontal plane, parallels the long axis of the body
-divides body or organ into anterior and posterior

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frontal and sagittal section are often called?

longitudinal sections

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popliteal

posterior region of the knee

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antecubital fossa

anterior surface of the elbow

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physiology

examines the function of anatomical structures, considers the physical and chemical processes responsible for characteristics of life, or vital function

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pathological physiology

(pathophysiology orpathology) studies the effects of diseases on organ or system function

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pathos

disease

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chemical or molecular level

simplest level of the structural ladder

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atoms

smallest stable units of matter

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molecules

water, sugar, protiens

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microscopic cells

smallest unit of all living things

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organelles

within the cell, molecules interact to form
-perform the vital functions that keep cells alive

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tissue

groups of similar cells that work together to perfrom a specific, common function

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organ

structure composed of two or more different tissue types that performs a specific function for the body

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organ system

group of organs that work together to accomplish a common purpose

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organism

highest level of oganization. (human being)

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dorsal body cavity

cranial cavity, spinal cavity

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ventral body cavity

thoracic cavity, abdominal cavity, pelvic cavity or abdominoplelvic cavity
-is much larger than the dorsal cavity

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right upper quad

liver, gall bladder, head of the pancreas, part of the duodenum, right kidney, part of the colon

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right lower quadrant

appendix ascending colon, small intestine, right ovary and fallopian tube

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left upper quadrant

spleen, tail of the pancreas, stomach, left kidney, part of the colon

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left lower quadrant

small intestine, descending colon, and left ovary and Fallopian tube