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1

What are the five major function of the skeletal system?

Support- structural support and framework for attachment of soft tissues and organs.

Storage- maintains normal concentrations of calcium and phosphorus ion, stores energy reserves in the form of lipid in yellow marrow

Blood cell production- (hematopoiesis) red, white, and other blood cells elements produce within red marrow.

Protection- protect soft tissues and organs.

Movement- skeletal muscles attached to bones by tendons, use as a levers to move.

2

Calcium (calcium phosphate)

-most abundant mineral in the body.
-accounts for almost 2/3 of the wight of bone

3

four general shapes of bones

-Long bones, longer than wide (femur)

-Short bones, cube shape, contain mostly spongy bone. (carpal)

-Flat bones, thin, flattened usually cured. (parietal, mandible, clavicles)

-Irregular bones, complex do not fit into any other category(vertebra)

4

Sesamoid bones

-short bone forms within tendons. Patella

5

Diaphysis

-central shaft of the long bone.
-surrounds central marrow cavity also know as yellow marrow cavity or medullary cavity.
-serves primarily as storage area for adipose tissue

6

epiphyses

-expanded portions at each end of the long bone.
-covered by articular cartilage (hyaline), and articulates with adjacent bones

7

Cancellous bone

-SPONGY bone, resembles a network of bony rods, struts separated by space.
-fills epiphyses

8

Trabecular bone

-SPONGY bone, resembles a network of bony rods, struts separated by space.
- fills epiphyses

9

Compact bone

-compact bone (dense bone)
-forms diaphysis

10

Red marrow

-forms blood cells
-confined to cavities in spongy bone of flat bones and epiphyses of long

11

Epiphyseal plates

- allow the lengthwise growth of a long
bone.
- growth plate

12

periosteum

- outer surface of a bone.

- fibers of tendons and ligaments intermingle with periosteum and attach skeletal muscle to bone and one bone to another

13

Perforating fibers or Sharpey’s fibers

connective tissue fibers,secure the periosteum to the underlying bone.

14

periosteum

isolates the bone from surrounding tissues, provides a route for circulatory and nervous supplies, and participates in bone growth and repair.

15

osteocytes

bone cells

16

lacunae

small pockets, house osteocytes

17

lamellae

-narrow sheets of calcified matrix where lacunae is located
- cylindrical and oriented parallel to the long axis of the central canal.

18

canaliculi

-Small channels, radiate through the matrix, and interconnect lacunae, and link them to nearby blood vessels.
- nutrients and waste products from osteocytes deffuse through extracellular fluid that surrounds these cells.

19

osteon

or Haversian system, basic functional and structural unit of compact bone

20

Haversian system

basic functional and structural unit of compact bone

21

Haversian canal

-Central canal,contains nerves, blood vessels, and lymphatics.

22

Compact Bone

- covers bone surfaces everywhere, EXEPT inside joint capsules, where articular hyaline
cartilages protect opposing surfaces.

- usually found where stresses come from a
limited range of directions.

23

Spongy Bone

-has a different lamellar arrangement and no osteons

- instead, the lamellae form rods or plates called trabeculae.

- much lighter than compact bones and found where are not heavily stressed.

24

Cells in Osseous Tissue

Osteocytes
osteoclasts
osteoblasts

25

Osteocytes

-mature bones cells

-maintain normal bone structure by recycling the calcium in bony matrix

- assisting in repairs

26

Osteoclasts

-dissolve the bony matrix by secreting acids and enzymes in order to release the stored minerals through OSTEOLYSIS (resorption).

- helps regulate calcium and phosphate concentrations in body fluids.

- REMOVING MATRIX

- after epiphyseal cartilages have closed normaly activities are balanced, as one forms another is destroyed.

27

Osteoblasts

-responsible for the production of new bone (osteogenesis).
- produce new bone matrix and promote the deposition of calcium salts in the organic matrix.
- ADDING TO IT

28

osteogenesis

production of new bone

29

metaphysis

- narrow portion of the long bone between the epiphysis and diaphysis.

- contains the growth plate

30

ossification

-process of replacing other tissues with bone.

-During development, cartilage or other connective tissues are replaced by bone

31

calcification

deposition of calcium salts, occurs during ossification, but it can also occur in tissues other than bone.

32

articular hyaline
cartilages

inside joint capsules, protects opposing surfaces

33

endochondral ossification

-Most of the bones of the body are formed through.

- bone replaces existing hyaline cartilage, which develops first

34

two major forms of ossification

1. Intramembranous Ossification
- In membrane
2. Endochondral Ossification
-inside cartilage

35

intramembranous ossification,

-bone develops within
sheets or membranes of connective tissue.
-The flat bones of the skull, the lower jaw (mandible), and the collarbones (clavicles) form this way.

36

Bone formation first occurs at

shaft surface

37

articular cartilage

-thin cap of the original cartilage model remains exposed to the joint cavity.
-its a smooth white tissues that covers bone ends and forms joints.
-allows bones to glide over each orther.
- articular hyaline

38

epiphyseal line

In adults, the former location of the epiphyseal cartilage

39

epiphyseal closure

The end of epiphyseal growth

40

appositional growth

-While the bone elongates, its diameter also enlarges at
its outer surface.
-occurs as cells of the periosteum develop into
osteoblasts, and produce additional bony matrix.

41

a typical human body contains how much calcium?

- 2 1/4 to 4 1/2 pounds
- 99% is deposited in the skeleton

42

Vitamin D3

- after processed in the liver, the kidneys convert a derivative of this vitamin into
calcitriol, which is a hormone that stimulates the
absorption of calcium and phosphate ions in the
digestive tract.,

43

calcitriol

stimulates the
absorption of calcium and phosphate ions in the
digestive tract.

44

Normal bone growth and maintenance cannot occurwithout a reliable source of minerals, especially?

calcium salts

45

Most abundant mineral in the human body?

calcium

46

parathyroid hormone (PTH)

-When blood calcium levels drop below homeostatic levels, the parathyroid glands are stimulated to release
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
- PTH activates osteoclasts to break down bone matrix, and release calcium ions into the blood.
(negative feedback)

47

calcitonin

When blood calcium levels are too high, the thyroid glandreleases calcitonin, which causes calcium to be
deposited in bone matrix as hard calcium salts.

48

what helps maintain calcium homeostasis in body fluids

The skeleton by providing calcium reserves

49

what two controlling mechanisms work together?

calcium regulation
(uptake & release), and bone remodeling

50

what determines where bone matrix is to be
broken down or formed?

The stresses of muscle pull and gravity

51

osteopenia.

Inadequate ossification

52

Osteoporosis

Produces a reduction in
bone mass great enough to compromise normal
function.

53

what are the four general types of skeletal and joint injuries?

Sprain
Subluxation
Dislocation
Fracture

54

Sprain

injury that stretches or tears one or more
ligaments within a joint.

55

Subluxation

also called a partial dislocation, is a partial
displacement of a bone end, from its position within a joint
capsule.

56

Dislocation

complete displacement of bone ends from their
normal position within a joint. This injury is at risk of
entrapping, compressing or tearing nearby blood vessels and
nerves.

57

Fracture

injury that disrupts the structural integrity of
a bone.

58

fracture hematoma

- large blood clot
-forms after a break and extensive bleeding around the fracture

59

internal callus

forms, as a network of spongy bone
unites the inner edges after a break

60

external callus

cartilage and bone stabilizes the outer edges after a break

61

The cartilage of the external callus is replaced by?

bone, and struts of spongy bone unite the broken ends.

62

what initially marks the location of the fracture?

Swelling

63

closed fracture

the skin is not broken, and there is no communication between the fracture site and the environment.

64

open fracture

the skin is broken and a
communication exists between the fracture site and
the environment.
- usually taken to the operating room,
where the fracture site is exposed, cleansed, and
irrigated to prevent infection

65

greenstick fracture

(seen almost exclusively
in children) is caused when an angular force is
applied to a long bone, resulting in bowing of
one side of the cortex, and fracture of the
other side of the cortex

66

torus fracture

(also seen almost exclusively
in children) there is localized buckling or a
bulge of the cortex of the bone, with little or
no displacement of the bone itself.

67

transverse fracture

fracture line that is
perpendicular to the long axis of the bone.

68

oblique fracture

break extends obliquely to
the long axis of the bone.

69

spiral fracture

also called a torsion fracture, occurs when a twisting force is applied to a long bone, and the fracture line traverses the shaft in more than one
plane.

70

torsion fracture

also called a spiral fracture- occurs when a twisting force is applied to a long bone, and the fracture line traverses the shaft in more than oneplane.

71

Comminuted fractures

where the bone at the
fracture site has three or more bone fragments

72

segmental fracture

injury where there are
multiple fracture sites along the axis of the bone, which leaves a free-floating segment of bone between
the two fracture sites.

73

impacted fracture

injury where an axial loading force is applied to the bone, which drives the bone ends at the fracture site together.

74

reduction

-realignment of the broken bone ends.
- how a fracture is treated

75

closed reduction,

bone ends are coaxed back into their normal position by the provider’s hands.

76

what is the healing time for a simple fracture?

6 to 8 weeks, but it is much longer for large bones, and for the bones of older people, due to their poorer circulation

77

open reduction,

surgery is performed and the bone
ends are secured together with pins, plates, or wires

78

physis

-cartilaginous epiphyseal plate
- readily injured because it is weaker than ossified
bone or ligaments
-(growth plate)

79

Articulations

or joints, exist where two bones meet

80

what two ways are joints classified?

structurally or functionally

81

structural classification

is based on the anatomy of
the joint, and in this framework

82

joints are classified as?

-fibrous
-cartilaginous
-synovial

83

what joints reflect the type of connective tissue that binds them together?

-Fibrous and cartilaginous
- permit either no movement or slightmovements.

84

Synovial joints

-surrounded by fibrous tissue, and the ends of bones are covered by cartilage that prevents bone-to-bone contact.
-Such joints permit free movement.

85

fibrous joints

-the bones are united by fibrous tissue
-Best example are the sutures in the head

86

syndesmoses

-connecting fibers are longer than those of the sutures; thus the joint has more “give”.
-joint connecting the distal ends of the tibia and fibula is a syndesmosis.

87

cartilaginous joints

- the bone ends are connected by fibrocartilage
- pubic symphysis of
the pelvis, and the intervertebral joints of the spinalcolumn
- connected by pads or discs

88

The hyaline-cartilage epiphyseal plates of growing long bones, and the cartilaginous joints between the first ribs and the sternum, are immovable cartilagenous joints are referred to as?

Synchondroses

89

Synovial joints

account for all joints of the limbs.

90

What are the four distinguishing features of Synovial Joints?

-Articular (Hyaline) Cartilage
-Articular Capsule
-Joint Cavity
-Reinforcing Ligaments

91

Articular (Hyaline) Cartilage

covers the ends of the bones forming the joint.

92

Articular Capsule

the joint surfaces are enclosed by a sleeve, or layer of fibrous connective tissue.

93

Joint Cavity

the articular capsule encloses a cavity which contains lubricating synovial fluid.

94

Reinforcing Ligaments

the fibrous layer of the capsule is usually reinforced with ligaments.

95

functional classification joints are classified?

according to the amount of movement the joint allows

96

An immovable joint is called?

synarthrosis

97

A slightly movable joint is called?

amphiarthrosis

98

A freely movable joint is called a?

diarthrosis, or synovial joint

99

suture

-bones of the skull are interlocked and bound together by dense connective tissue.

100

gomphosis

a ligament binds each tooth in the mouth within a bony socket.

101

Suture and Gomphosis are are examples of?

fibrous immovable joints
(synarthrosis)

102

syndesmosis

fibrous joint connected by a ligament.

103

symphysis

cartilaginous joint, because the bones are separated by a broad disc or pad of fibrocartilage

104

Diarthroses

-or synovial joints, permit a wide range of motion.
-typically found at the ends of long bones such as those of the arms and legs.

105

Under normal conditions, the bony surfaces do not
contact one another, because they are covered
with special?

- articular cartilages
- synovial membrane

106

menisci

shock absorbing, fibrocartilage pads

107

Based on the type of movement allowed, synovial joints can be classified as?

1. Gliding (Plane) Joint
2. Hinge Joint
3. Pivot Joint
4. Ellipsoidal (Condyloid) Joint
5. Saddle Joint
6. Ball-and-Socket Joint

108

Gliding (Plane) Joint

Nonaxial – limited movement in all directions

109

Hinge Joint

Uniaxial – moves in only 1 axis

110

Pivot Joint

Uniaxial – moves in only 1 axis

111

Ellipsoidal (Condyloid) Joint and Saddle Joint

Biaxial – moves in 2 axes

112

Ball-and-Socket Joint

Multiaxial – moves freely in all directions

113

Gliding joints

- relatively flat articular surfaces which allow them to slide across one another
- movement is very slight.

114

Gliding joints are found at?

the ends of the clavicles,
between the carpal and tarsal bones, and between the facets of adjacent vertebrae
(between clavicle and manubrium)

115

Hinge joints

permit angular movement in a single plane, like opening a door.

116

hinge joints expample

Elbow, knee, ankle, interphalangeal
(between humerus and ulna+

117

Pivot joints

permit rotation only.

118

Pivot joint examples

atlas and axis enable the head to be rotated, and likewise, between the head of the radius and the proximal shaft of the ulna permits pronation and supination of the palm
(between ulna and Radius)

119

ellipsoidal

- or condyloid joint, an oval articular face nestles within a depression on the opposing surface
- connect the radius with the proximal carpal bones, and the phalanges with the metacarpal or metatarsal bones.
(scaphoid to radius)

120

Saddle joints

-have articular faces that fit together like a rider in a saddle.
-carpo-metacarpal joint at the base of the thumb.
(trapezium and metacarpal of the thumb)

121

ball-and-socket joint

-the round head of one bone
rests within a cup-shaped depression in another bone
-Examples are the shoulder and hip joints.
-humerus

122

greater the mobility of a joint?

-weaker the joint, because
mobile joints rely on support from muscles and
ligaments, rather than solid bone-to-bone connections
-A joint cannot be both highly mobile and very strong.

123

shoulder joint

-permits the greatest range of motion
of any joint in the body.
- most frequently dislocated joint
- example of the demonstration that stability must be sacrificed in order to obtain mobility.

124

bone markings

-or surface features
- are landmarks such as elvations, (tendons and ligaments attach, and where adjacent bones articulate at joints)
- projection, depression, opening, (blood vessels
and nerves run alongside or penetrate the bone.)

125

process

Any projection or bump on a bone

126

Processes that are formed where tendons or ligaments
attach include:

Trochanter
Tuberosity
Tubercle

127

Trochanter

a large, rough projection

128

Tuberosity

a smaller, rough projection

129

Tubercle

a small, rounded projection

130

condyle

smooth, rounded articular process.

131

fossa*

is a shallow depression

132

sulcus

is a narrow groove.

133

foramen*

* is a rounded passageway for blood vessels or
nerves.

134

Pelvis is part of

appendicular skeleton

135

Sternum is part of

axial skeleton

136

Bones of sternum:

manubrium, body, xiphoid process

137

Frontal bone forms

forehead and roof of orbits

138

Foramen magnum

in base of skull connects cranial & spinal cavities

139

Zygomatic bone

forms lateral wall of orbit

140

Fetal skull has fibrous connections called

fontanels

141

Weight bearing part of the vertebra is

the vertebral body, solid bone

142

Clavicle articulates with

the manubrium & sternum

143

Bone of the brachium is the

humerus

144

Olecranon is associated with

ulna

145

Bones of the wrist are

carpal bones

146

Medial malleolus on

tibia

147

lateral malleolus

is on the fibula

148

vomer

unpaired facial bone

149

Hyoid

anchors tongue & doesn’t articulate with any other bone

150

Atlas

first cervical vertebra

151

Rib order

true, false, floating

152

axial skeleton

-makes up our central axis and consists of the following bones: skull, vertebrae, ribs and sternum
-80 bones

153

appendicular skeleton

consists of the limbs and girdles.
-126 bones

154

sella turcica

saddle-shaped depression in the body of the sphenoid bone of the human skull
- contains the pituitary gland

155

intervertebral disc

or intervertebral fibrocartilage) lies between adjacent vertebrae in the vertebral column. Each disc forms a fibrocartilaginous joint (a symphysis), to allow slight movement of the vertebrae, and acts as a ligament to hold the vertebrae together.

156

soft palate

-also known as the velum or muscular palate
-soft tissue constituting the back of the roof of the mouth. The soft palate is distinguished from the hard palate at the front of the mouth in that it does not contain bone.

157

hard palate

a thin horizontal bony plate of the skull, located in the roof of the mouth. It is formed by the palatine process of the maxilla and horizontal plate of palatine bone, and spans the arch formed by the upper teeth.

158

osseous tissue

The distinctive texture of bone, results from the deposition of calcium salts within the
matrix

159

Long bones

-Starts out as cartilage

-serves as model

- cartilage does not turn
into hard bone,cartilage is replaced by hard
bone.

160

Hyaline

-articular cartilage
- articulates with adjacent bone at a joint

161

ossification center

- where ossification first occurs

-Bone growth is an active process, and osteoblasts require oxygen and a reliable supply of nutrients.

162

endochondral ossification

-bone replaces existing hyaline cartilage, which develops first.
- starts as chondrocytes within the cartilage model enlarge, and the surrounding matrix begins to calcify.

163

Bone formation first occurs at the?

-shaft surface

164

secondary centers of ossification

1 osteoblast form spongy bone within center of shaft, bone development proceeds toward either end
2 osteoclast break down some spongy bone and create a marrow cavity, and begin to calcify.
3 oseteoblast enter these areas, SECONDARY CENTERS OF OSSIFICATION form, become filled with spongy bone