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1

What is an element?

An element is a pure substance that is distinguished from all other matter.

2

How is an element different than a compound?

Cannot be broken down by ordinary chemical means.

3

Carbon (C)

Backbone of organic compounds

4

Hydrogen (H)

Component of many compounds(such as water,organic compounds, bicarbonate)

5

Oxygen (O)

Needed to break down glucose to produce energy for the body.

6

Sodium (N)

Component of amino acids that make proteins.

7

Calcium (Ca)

Inorganic component of bone;also needed for muscle contraction, blood clotting,and nerve impulses;often seen as the ion,Ca^2+.

8

Phosphorus (P)

Inorganic component of bone;component of DNA & ATP(form of energy that drives many reactions in the body).

9

Potassium(K)

Present inside of cell as K^+;required for nerve impulses.

10

Sodium(Na)

Present out of the cell as Na^+;required for nerve impulses.

11

Iron(Fe)

Transports oxygen (in hemoglobin)

12

Magnesium(Mg)

Required for normal body metabolism.

13

Sulfur(S)

Component of many proteins

14

Elements connect or bond to form compounds. The two types of chemical binding discussed are?

Ionic bonds & covalent bonds.

15

Ionic bond

Attraction of positive and negative ions. Ionic compounds are called salts.

16

Atoms become positively or negatively charged by gaining or losing negatively charged subatomic particles called?

Electrons

17

Cation

Positively charged ion (Na+,Ca2+,K+)
An atom becomes positively charged when it loses electrons.

18

Anion

Negatively charged ion (Cl-)
An atom become negatively charged when it gains electrons.

19

Since opposite charges attract,cations & anions bond to form ?

Ionic compounds. When this happens the charges will balance, so comping will have no net charge.
Ex: NaCl

20

Covalent bond

Two atoms share electrons

21

When electrons are shared equally between atoms?

Nonpolar.

22

When electrons are shared UNEQUALLY between two atoms ?

Polar bond.

23

Nonpolar Covalent Bonds

Atoms share electrons equally. Occurs when two elements are the same.
Example: O2, N2

24

Compounds with lots of C-H bonds are?

Nonpolar compounds.

25

Polar Covalent Bonds

Atoms share electrons unequally.

26

Proteins;

Polar

27

Amino Acids;

Some Polar and some are non polar

28

Sugars

Polar

29

Fats

Nonpolar

30

Carbondioxide

Nonpolar

31

Why is it important to classify a compound as polar or nonpolar?

To identify whether compound is a solvent/can it dissolve in blood.

32

How does polarity affect how the chemicals behave within a cell?

Polar solvents flow easily in/out of cells. Nonpolar chemicals need liproproteins to flow through cell.

33

Why would sugar be expected to dissolve in water?

Sugar is polar, so it would dissolve in polar covalent solvents.

34

Would salts dissolve in water? why?

Yes salts(ionic solids) would dissolve in water because salts contain positive & negative ions, which are held together by the strong force of attraction between particles w/ opposite charges.

35

Why would most proteins dissolve in water? Why?

Hydrophilic proteins dissolve in eater because some proteins are polar.

36

Will sugar dissolve in fat ( or a nonpolar solvent)

No

37

Would salt dissolve in fat ( or a non polar solvent)

No

38

Would most proteins dissolve in fat( or a nonpolar solvent)

Most proteins would not dissolve in fat b/c they are polar.

39

Water molecules (as well as other polar covalent compounds w/ hydrogen) can form bonds called?

Hydrogen Bonds

40

The sum of chemical reactions in the body?

Metabolism

41

Reaction where small molecules are combined to make bigger ones?

Anabolism

42

Reaction where bigger molecules are broken down to form smaller ones?

Catabolism

43

If fat does not dissolve in blood, how is it transported?

Fat is transported in the blood through lipoprotein (group of soluble proteins) that combine w/ transport fat.

44

Adding water to break bonds apart?

Hydrolysis

45

Most digestive enzymes work by

Hydrolysis

46

General reaction for the for the hydrolysis of a disaccharide

C12H22O11 + H2O -----> C6H12O6 + C6H12O6

47

Removing water to build bonds

Dehydration

48

C6H1206+C6H12O6 --------->C12H22O11+H20

Dehydration Synthesis

49

Sweating, evaporation of perspiration for cooling is?

Temperature regulation

50

What has a relatively ____specific heat

High

51

Water has a high heat a vaporization, what does thus mean?

The temp has to be high since it takes high heat to break hydrogen bonds to become water vapor gas.

52

Explain how specific heat and heat of vaporization work together to help regulate body temperature?

When body temp rises above some theoretical "set point" temperature , effector responses associated w/ cooling (sweating) are turned on. When body temp fall below "set point", heat gain responses (shivering) are initiated.

53

Important where two membrane or structures rub together?

Lubrication. Water is an important component of many lubricating fluids in the body.

54

Measure of acidity of alkalinity of a solution based on a scale of 0-14?

pH

55

What does it mean to say something is acidic?

Ph is less that 7 ex; Lemon, tomato

56

Is the normal pH of the blood acidic, neutral, or basic?

Basic/alkaline

57

Why is it important for the body to maintain homeostasis of pH?

Because activity of most chemical reactions via enzyme proteins are dependent on fluid pH

58

How does the body maintain homeostasis of pH?

It uses the buffer system.

59

Identify the components of a buffer?

H20+CO2H2CO3H+ +HCO3-

60

If blood becomes too acidic, which component if the buffer system would help to bring the pH balance back to its normal rage?.

Bicarbonate will help pick up the H+ ions and and make the solution more alkaline, by making bicarbonate acid.

As pH lowers H+ increases. As H+ increases pH is lowered.

61

Bicarbonate/Carbonic acid Buffer system Equation

H2CO3H+ +HCO3-

62

If bicarbonate picks up(or binds to) a H+ ion, what happens to the pH? Is this an example of positive or negative feedback?

it raises the pH, negative feedback

63

How are organic compounds different from organic compounds?

Organic compounds have carbon backbone, inorganic compound does not.

64

3 elements found in all carbohydrates ?

Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen 1:2:1 Ratio

65

Major functions of Carbs?

Give energy

66

What is a monosaccharide?

Polar, simple sugar.

67

Three examples of monosaccharides?

Glucose, Fructose, Galactose

68

What is a simple sugar? Why are monosaccharides called simple sugars?

It can no longer be broken down anymore, once it is a sugar.

69

Disaccharides

Two sugars( molecules contain 2 monosaccharides)

70

3 examples of disaccharides?

Maltose, Sucrose(table sugar), Lactose

71

Glucose + Glucose=

Maltose

72

Glucose+Fructose+

Sucrose

73

Glucose+Galactose+=

Lactose

74

What is a polysaccharide?

Multiple monosaccharides linked together through dehydration synthesis.

75

Name three polysaccharides ,and identify a major function of each?

Glycogen---->storage for carbs
Cellulose---->Humans can't digest------>good for fiber
Starch----->convert into glucose for energy

76

When a polysaccharide is made from glucose, is the reaction anabolic or catabolic?

anabolic---> energy is released. The reaction happens through dehydration synthesis.

77

If starch is broken down to glucose, water is added to the starch in a process called ?

hydrolysis

78

Name three functions of fat?

Store energy, hormones, structural components

79

What elements do fats (triglycerides ) typically contain ?

Three fatty acids (carboxylic acid, and a chain of carbon and hydrogen atoms)

80

Describe the major function of triglycerides in the cell

energy source (storage)
Insulation around organs
protection

81

If the long fatty acid chains have no double bonds, the fat is said to be

Saturated

82

Contains double bonds in some of the fatty acid chains

Unsaturated ( will be liquid at room temp)

83

name some examples of fats that are solid at room temp?

Saturated fats----> Fats from meat, poultry, dairy

84

Name some examples of fats that are liquid at room tempature?

Unsaturated fats----> cooking oil, olive oil.

85

If triglycerides do not dissolve in water, how are they transported into the blood?

They are transported as part of lipoprotein particles.

86

has a 3-carbon backbone, but one of the fatty acids chains is replaced by a highly polar phosphate "head group"

phospholipid

87

Phospholipid is a large molecule w/?

one hydrophilic ( water loving) end and the other end hydrophobic( water fearing)

88

Why do the polar head groups and non-polar tails of a phospholipid make it ideal for cell membrane structure?

Both the interior of the cell and the surrounding areas of the cell are made up by water. Consequently phospholipids orient themselves w/ respect to the water so that the hydrophilic head groups face outward and are attracted to the intracellular and extracellular fluid.Since the tails are hydrophobic, they face the inside, away from the water and meet in the inner region of the membrane.

89

Fat molecules that are made from cholesterol

Steroid (Multi-ring) structure. Mostly nonpolar.

90

Example of steroid fats?

Cholesterol, estrogen, progesterone, testosterone

91

How might steroids be transported in the blood stream?

transported through lipoproteins

92

Fat made from omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids.

eicosanoids, many eicosanoids are regulatory molecules in the body
example:prostaglandins.

93

Prostaglandins are derivates of

essential fat

94

List some body processes regulated by prostaglandins?

1.Regulate body temperature
2.mucus production
3.local hormones

95

4 types of fats emphasized in this chapter include?

1. triglycerides
2.phospholipids
3.steroids
4.eicosanoids

96

Chains of amino acids?

Proteins

97

Elements found in Proteins

C,H,O,N

98

Functions of proteins

1.Protein hormones
2.Structure (collagen, elastin)
3. muscle Proteins
4.hemoglobin(transpo oxygen)
5.enzymes

99

Can a protein only be one amino acid long?

No, b/c it needs to be a long chain.

100

Amino acids are linked together to make proteins by removing water, a process called

Dehydration synthesis

101

The binds between amino acids are called ?

Peptide bonds

102

Approximately how many different amino acids are there that make up proteins?

20+ amino acids

103

What is meant by the term essential amino acid? Why are they the most important in the diet?

Must be eaten, b/c the body doesn't make them.

104

Are "non-essential" amino acids necessary in the diet in order to make body proteins? Why or why not?

No, non-essential amino acids don't come from diet because the body can make it.

105

Primary protein structure

linear chains, varies in length

106

Secondary protein structure

helix sequence, or pleated sheet

107

Tertiary protein Structure

3d fluid, globular, fibrous

108

Quaternary protein structure

multiple amino acid chains

109

Proteins are either (shapes)?

Globular, and fibrous

110

Fibrous Proteins example

Collagen, keratin

111

Globular Proteins include

enzymes, albumin, and hemoglobin

112

Protein Structure is linked to protein function, if protein structure is changed?

the protein loses its ability to function it becomes denatured.

113

unfolding of a protein, change in a shape, lose function

Denatured

114

What would happen if a hemoglobin if it becomes denatured?

The function would change- the tertiary structure would breakdown and no longer be able to bind to oxygen cells.

115

Name two conditions that would cause a hemoglobin to denature?

Changes in pH, changes in temperature.

116

What could happen to the proteins in the blood if the pH of the blood was outside of its normal range?

They could denature (lose shape) leads to loss of function which could lead to death.

117

One of the most significant groups of proteins

Enzymes. Enzymes are proteins that catalyze(increase the speed of which reactions occur) reactions in the cell.

118

Enzymes work by a "lock and key" mechanism , what does this mean?

A substrate is the molecule that the enzyme allows to be changed faster. The substrate binds into a very specific pocket in the enzymes structure.

119

Five characteristics of enzymes

1. Biological catalyst - increases speed at which reactions occur.
2. unchanged during reactions
3. can be recycled
4.unique and specific for certain reactions.
5. shape essential for function b/c enzymes ARE proteins

120

Most enzyme names end in

-ase

121

Based on its name, what would you expect to be the substrate of the enzyme, lactase

lactose

122

If enzymes are proteins can they be denatured?

yes

123

Describe what happens if an enzyme is denatured. How might denaturation of an enzyme affect the function oof the cell?

It would become non-functional. It would unfold it's tertiary structure ---> could lead to irreparable damage and death.

124

DNA is comprised of

Nucleotides, they are in a double helix structure. Each nucleotide is made up of three components
1. sugar
2.Nitrogenous base
3.Phosphate

125

The nitrogenous bases in DNA are Adenine, cytosine, guanine, and thymine. Which nitrogenous bases pair and bond with one another in the DNA double helix?

Cytosine, and guanine

126

Describe the primary function of DNA, DNA contains the code for making which type of molecule>

it determines our inherited characteristics. DNA contains the code for making proteins

127

DNA is organized into a series of three nitrogenous base units. Explain the significance of this unit in cell functions?

The nitrogenous bases are needed for storing information for protein synthesis.

128

How can the cell make sense of a string of nitrogenous bases such as ACCGTGCCTATA? What is its purpose in the making of protein?

it reads them in sets of 3. Every 3=1 amino acid (codon)

129

a series of 12 nitrogenous bases would code for __ amino acids

4

130

Explain what is meant by saying that DNA controls "who you are"

it affects all aspects of human function and structure

131

Describe the function of RNA

carries genetic information, copied DNA

132

Describe three structural difference between RNA & DNA?

DNA--> Found in nucleus/ RNA found in nucleus & cytoplasm.
sugar is deoxyribose. sugar is ribose
Bases are A,T,C,G. Bases are A,U,C,G

133

a usable form of energy

ATP (adenosine triphosphate)

134

Where is ATP produced in the cell? Where is ATP found in the cell?

ATP is produced in the mitochondria. ATP is found in the membrane of cellular structures.

135

ADP--->+P+ENERGY-->ATP

Reaction by which ADP--->ATP

136

What kind of energy is used to transform ATP to ADP?

endergonic energy(reaction that requires energy to be absorbed in order for it to take place)---> breaks bonds

137

Does ADP occur by hydrolysis or dehydration?

Dehydration synthesis(molecules bond by losing water)

138

H20+ATP---Atp hydrolysis energy-->ADP+P+ENERGY

Reaction by which ATP is broken down to ADP (Exergonic energy (energy released) Forms bonds , reactions are spontaneous. Occurs by hydrolysis(adding of water)

139

The enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP is called

ATPase

140

What class of organic compound is ATPase?

enzyme

141

Where does the energy to make ATP in the cell come from?

Glucose
(the food we eat)