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The smallest unit of matter that combined to form cells

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Chemical

Substance with a distinct molecular composition

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Organelle

Structural units within cells that have specific functions

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Cell

The basic structure unit of living organisms

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Tissue

Group of cells working together to perform a function
examples:blood bone

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Organ

Group of tissues working together to perform a function
Example; heart

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Organ system

Group of organs working together to perform a function
Example; nervous system muscular system

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Organism

Group of systems working together
Example; human
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Integumentary system F&O

Function; protect against environment regulate body temp, sensory info
Major organ; skin, sweat glands, nail

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Skeletal system F&O

Function; support/protection for tissues, store calcium/minerals, forms blood cells
Major organ; bones, Cartilage,associated ligaments, bone marrow

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Muscular system F&O

Function; provides movement, protects tissue, generates heat/body temp
Major organ; skeletal muscles associated tendons

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Nervous system Function & Organs

Function; response to stimuli,moderate activities of organs, provide/interpret sensory info
Major organ; brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, sensory organs
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Endocrine system Function & Organs

Function; adjust metabolism,control structural and functional changes in the body

Major organ; pituitary gland, thyroid gland, pancreas, adrenal gland, testes

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Cardiovascular system F&O

Function; distributes blood cells, water etc., distributes heat, controls body temp
Major organs; heart, blood, blood vessels

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Lymphatic system F&O

Function; defense against infection returns fluids to bloodstream

Major organ; spleen, times, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, tonsils

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Respiratory system F&O

Function; air to Alveoli, provides oxygen to bloodstream, remove CO2 from bloodstream
Major organs; nasal cavities, sinuses, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, alveoli

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Digestive system F&O

Function; digest foods, absorbs water, stored energy
Major organ; teeth, tongue, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver, gall bladder

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Urinary system F&O

Function; excretes waste, controls water balance, stores urine, regulates blood and PH
Major organ; kidneys, uterus, bladder, urethra

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Male reproductive system F&O

Function; produce sperm, seminal fluids, hormones, sex
Major organ; testes, epididymides, ducts diffrentia, Seminal vesicles

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Female reproductive system F&O

Function; produces female sex cells, developing embryo, milk, sex
Major organ; ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, Vagina labia, clitoris, memory glands

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In anatomical position, the palms are facing?

Forward.

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Why is it important than medical professionals describe the human body in this position

To be able to clearly talk about different parts of moving organisms no matter how they are moving or what position they are in

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Cranial

Skull

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Cephalic

Head

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Frontal

Forehead

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Ocular

Eye

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Buccal

Cheek

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Cervical

Neck

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Facial

Face

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Oral

Mouth

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Pelvic

Pelvis

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Thoracic

Chest

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Axillary

Armpits

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Mammary

Breast

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Brachial

Arm

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Scapular

Shoulder blade

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Digital (phalangeal)

Fingers

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Patellar

Knee cap

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Abdominal

Abdomen

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Umbilical

Navel

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Antecubital

Front of elbow

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Palmar

Palm

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Carpal

Wrist

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Pollex

Thumb

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Manual

Hand

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Mental

Chin

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Pubic

Pubis

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Inguinal

Groin

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Coxal

Tailbone

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Femoral

Thigh

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Vertebral

Spine

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Acromial

Shoulder

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Dorsal

Back

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Crural

Leg

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Pectoral

Peck muscle

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Tarsal

Ankle

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Pedal

Foot

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Popliteal

Back of knee

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Calcaneal

Heel of foot

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Peroneal (Fibular)

Outer calf

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Perineal

Abdominal cavity

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Olecranal

Back of elbow

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Lumbar

Lower back bone

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Gluteal

But cheek

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Sural

Calf

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Plantar

Sole of foot

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Sternal

Sternum

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Anterior

Front of the body

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Ventral

Belly side

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Dorsal (Direction)

To the back

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Posterior

The back of surface

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Cephalic (Cranial)

Toward the head

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Caudal

Toward the tail

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Inferior

Below; toward feet

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Superior

Above, toward the head

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Medial

Toward the midline

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Lateral

Away from the midline

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Distal

Away from the point of attachment of a limb to the trunk

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Proximal

Toward the point of attachment of a limb to the trunk

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Superficial

At, near, close to the body surface

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Deep

Toward the interior of the body

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Visceral w/n

Relating to organs within the body cavities

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Parietal

Relating to Body cavity wall

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Bilateral

Both sides of the body

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Contralateral

Pertaining to the other side

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Ipsilateral

On the same side of the body

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The heart is medial to the?

Lungs.

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The carpal region is? To the brachial Region

Proximal.

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Two tumors located in the right kidney will be? Tumors

Visceral

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Transverse or horizontal section

Cross section

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Sagittal section

Left and right parts

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Mid sagittal section

Equal in left and right halves

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Frontal or coronal section

Anterior and posterior parts

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Would it be Possible to make a transverse section of the abdominal cavity without cutting through the stomach

Yes, cut would go across

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Is it possible to make a sagittal section of the thoracic cavity without cutting through the heart

Yes

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Dorsal cavity

Divided into two cavities that house the central nervous system the cranial cavity and the spinal cavity

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Cranial cavity

Contains the brain

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Spinal cavity

Contains the spinal cord

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What are the cranial cavity and spinal cavity line by?

The cavities are lined by meninges, connective tissues that protect the organs inside these cavities

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The dorsal cavity is surrounded by bone. Why is that important, based on what you know about human anatomy?

The dorsal body cavity is totally surrounded by bone and provides very good protection for the section it contains.

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Ventral(front,belly side) cavity consist of ?

Consist of two main cavity separated by the mediastinum

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Thoracic cavity

Lungs: covered by tissues called pluera

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Where is visceral(W/N) pleura located?

Covering the mediastinum surface and the inner body wall.

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Mediastinum

Space between the lungs. The trachea, esophagus, heart, and great vessels of the heart are found there.

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What is the term for the tissue that surrounds the heart?

Pericardium; has a visceral layer and a parade or layer

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Abdominal pelvic cavity Is line by tissues called?

Peritoneum

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Where is this Visceral peritoneum located?

Wrapped around the internal organs located inside the inter-peritoneal cavity

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Where is parietal (body cavity wall) peritoneum located?

Portion lined the abdominal pelvic cavities, thoracic cavity

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What does the abdominal cavity contain?

Contains digestive organs (stomach, liver, intestines)

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Pelvic cavity:

Contains the reproductive organs.

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Homeostasis:

Maintaining a stable environment.

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What regulatory systems maintain homeostasis?

Endocrine system, nervous system.

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What is the function of an Endocrine Organ:

And endocrine organ makes a hormone that travels with the blood to act on another part of the body

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Nervous system:

Consist of nerves (controlled by the brain), and provides a quick response

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What are two types of homeostasis responses?

Negative and positive feedback.

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Negative feedback:

Body maintains in normal range, or setpoint.
Example: when the body is cold negative feedback will make it shiver, when the body is hot negative feedback will make it sweat.

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What homeostatic mechanism helps restore normal temperature when body temperature is low?

Hypothalamus sends signal to shiver.

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What is the purpose of shivering? Sweating?

Maintaining homeostasis.

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Body temperature is primarily control by?

The nervous system.

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What homeostatic mechanism helps restore normal glucose my blood sugar is low?

Pancreas secretes more insulin.

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Positive feedback;

Initial change causes an even greater change
Example: labor and delivery, release of oxytocin causes stronger contraction: blood clotting; positive feedback accelerate clotting until clock can stop bleeding.

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Why aren’t positive feedback mechanisms very common in the human body?

It seems to produce extreme responses.

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What are the nine regions?

The right hypochondriac, epigastric region, left hypochondriac region, right lumbar region, umbilical region, left lumbar region, right Inguinal region, hypogastric pubic region, left inguinal region.

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What are the four Quadrants

Right upper quadrant, left upper quadrant, right lower quadrant, left lower quadrant.

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Name one Oregon that is found in the right hypochondriac region

Liver

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Describe the position of epigastric region relative to the hypogastric region

The epigastric region is superior to The hypogastric region

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In which region could you find the umbilicus

The umbilical region

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In which quadrant could you find the spleen?

Left upper quadrant

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In which quadrant is the appendix Found?

Right lower quadrant