Flashcards in Christianity Deck (46):
What kind of religion is Christianity (animistic, polytheistic, monotheistic)?
What does “the priesthood of the believer” mean?
No intermediaries between God and humankind
Many thought priests were corrupt
Spirit of the New Testament
Translatin of the Bible to the vernacular - could be read by every Christian
What are the 7 sacraments?
Extreme Unction (last rites)
Holy Orders (dedicating oneself to the life of a monk or nun)
What is Christmas?
Celebrates the birth of Christ
What is advent?
Celebrated over the 4 weeks before Christmas.
Read from scripture
Light advent candles
Prepares of Christmas
What is Epiphany?
12 days after Christmas: January 6th
Commemorates the wise men who came to Bethlehem to find baby Jesus`
What is Easter?
Celebrated the Sunday after Good Friday. Joyous celebration commemorating the Resurrection.
Early Christians used Easter as a time to receive new members with baptism and new robes.
Tradition of new clothing has continued in many modern Christian communities.
What is Lent?
"Celebrated" by abstaining from a certain food or habit as a reminder of the need for repentance.
Includes Ash Wednesday and the Holy week
What is Ash Wednesday?
A reminder of burden of sin. 40 days before Easter.
What is Palm Sunday?
Commemorates Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem
What is Maundy Thursday?
Day of Jesus' last supper; some Christians partake of communion; some practice the ritual of foot washing
What is Good Friday?
Christians remember the trial, execution, and burial of Jesus
How is the date for Easter determined?
Established according to a lunar calendar - connected to the vernal equinox
What are some of the different branches of Christianity?
Protestants: Evangelical, Baptist, Methodist, Lutherans, Presbyterians, Church of England, Mennonites/Amish/Quakers
What is the Apostle’s Creed? Why was it written?
A statement of faith
To counter "heretical" groups
Who wrote most of the books of the New Testament? What is the general nature/content
of these books?
Advice to the early church on doctrine, leadership, and worship, as well as Paul's understanding of the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus including events of Jesus' life
How do Protestant branches of Christianity differ from the Roman Catholic Church?
Protestants emphasize scripture as the soul word of God; Catholics consider tradition coequal with scripture
Catholics maintain that the church wrote the scripture, therefore, their traditions are at least equal to it while Protestants do not.
How does the Eastern Orthodox differ from the Roman Catholic Church?
Roman Catholic Church:
Pope is religious and political leader
Concerned with political realities of a decaying world
Allowed statues as well as icons
Used sprinkling of water for baptism
Priests and monks practiced celibacy
Worship performed in Latin
Didn't recognize authority of the pope
Developed most of the thinkers and leaders of the early church
Allowed only icons
Baptism by full immersion
Allowed marriage before ordination
Worship performed in Greek
What general content comprises the remainder of the Christian New Testament?
The Hebrew Bible, Letters of Paul, and the Gospels
What is a gospel? Which are the four gospels that made it into the Christian bible?
A gospel is the historical context of Jesus' life
Mark, John, Matthew, and Luke
When did Jesus’ followers begin to preach?
The Festival of Shavuot (now known as Pentecost)
What caused the rift between Jews & Christians?
Paul saying that one could become Christian without being Jewish first. Christianity could then become an independent universal religion rather than a sect of Judaism.
When & why did Christianity become the official religion of Rome?
337 CE when Constantine was baptized and converted as he lie dying
What was the nature of the medieval papacy? How did it lead to the Protestant Reformation?
Christianity was basically the only religion of Europe and Roman Catholic was the only church for Western Europeans. It became the only secure leadership in medieval Europe.
The church's role in politics led to abuse (went to war, gathered land and wealth, church offices being given to those favored) so they tried to revolutionize the church and destroy the hold of the catholic church.
How did the Protestant reformation begin? How did the printing press aid the Reformation?
It started with Martin Luther. He called for moral reform by protesting sale of indulgences: could buy forgiveness for the living or dead; release sounds from purgatory
Luther wrote the Ninety-Five Theses as grounds for debate on this and the printing press helped circulate his ideas
How did the Roman Catholic Church respond to the Protestant Reformation?
With the Catholic Counter Reformation and defined "what is Roman Catholic"
What was Vatican II? What did the Catholic Church decide during Vatican II?
A response to modernity.
Non-Catholics recognized as true Christians
Vernacular allowed in mass
Index of prohibited books abolished
Congregational participation encouraged
Church officially declared jews not responsible for the death of Jesus
Who is Jesus?
Where and how was Jesus born?
Bethelem- home of David from divine conception
When did Jesus begin to preach?
At age 30 after being baptized
What was Jesus' first significant public act?
His baptism by John the baptist
Who did Jesus believe he was? Who did others believe he was?
A rabbi or teacher
What are the events of the last week of his life?
He entered Jerusalem on Sunday. He partook in his final meal on Thursday with is disciples. He went to the garden of gethsemane to pray for a few hours. Betrayed by Judas and was arrested. Tried by the Jewish high court then had a hearing before points pilate. Crucified and died.
How was he greeted when he entered Jerusalem the last Sunday before his death?
With acceptance and acclaim. He was celebrated by palms being waved at him.
What was the last supper? What did Jesus tell his disciples during the last supper?
His final meal with his disciples. He said he received a vision showing that Peter would deny him three times and that Judas would betray him. Spoke of the Temple of Solomon being destroyed
When was Jesus arrested? Where was he arrested? Who tried him?
Thursday, the day before his crucifixion.
The garden of gethsemane
Jewish high court then Pontius Pilate
When was Jesus crucified? Why was he crucified?
The next friday morning from the day he was tried. The Jews voted and they wanted him to be executed due to the fear of him overthrowing Rome
When did Jesus rise from the dead?
The Sunday after his death
Who is Paul? Why is Paul important to Christianity?
The founder of Christianity. A theologian. He attempt to systematize the beliefs of Christianity and is the author of 14 books in the New Testament. He traveled across Europe preaching.
Who was Martin Luther? What was his contribution to Christianity?
Teacher of theology. Lectured on Paul's letters. Called for reform of the Church and started the protestant reformation
What is transubstantiation?
An understanding of how Christ can be truly present in the eucharist
What is “original sin”? And why does it matter?
Adam and Eve. It symbolizes all of humanity's first sin. Sin transformed human nature in a way that was bound to affect their descendants.
What is the Christian concept of grace?
The ultimate expression of God's love.
What is the Christian concept of salvation?
Jesus Christ had acted to bring salvation from sin to the world.
What is the Holy Trinity? How did it attempt to solve the problem of monotheism?
Father, son, and holy spirit/ghost. It's seen as three persons in one substance and God is a single divine substance made up by three subsistences