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Comparative Religions > Christianity > Flashcards

Flashcards in Christianity Deck (46):
1

What kind of religion is Christianity (animistic, polytheistic, monotheistic)?

Monotheistic

2

What does “the priesthood of the believer” mean?

No intermediaries between God and humankind
Many thought priests were corrupt
Spirit of the New Testament
Translatin of the Bible to the vernacular - could be read by every Christian

3

What are the 7 sacraments?

Baptism
Confirmation
Penance (confession)
Eucharist (communion)
Extreme Unction (last rites)
Marriage
Holy Orders (dedicating oneself to the life of a monk or nun)

4

What is Christmas?

Celebrates the birth of Christ

5

What is advent?

Celebrated over the 4 weeks before Christmas.
Read from scripture
Light advent candles
Prepares of Christmas

6

What is Epiphany?

12 days after Christmas: January 6th
Commemorates the wise men who came to Bethlehem to find baby Jesus`

7

What is Easter?

Celebrated the Sunday after Good Friday. Joyous celebration commemorating the Resurrection.
Early Christians used Easter as a time to receive new members with baptism and new robes.
Tradition of new clothing has continued in many modern Christian communities.

8

What is Lent?

"Celebrated" by abstaining from a certain food or habit as a reminder of the need for repentance.
Includes Ash Wednesday and the Holy week

9

What is Ash Wednesday?

A reminder of burden of sin. 40 days before Easter.

10

What is Palm Sunday?

Commemorates Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem

11

What is Maundy Thursday?

Day of Jesus' last supper; some Christians partake of communion; some practice the ritual of foot washing

12

What is Good Friday?

Christians remember the trial, execution, and burial of Jesus

13

How is the date for Easter determined?

Established according to a lunar calendar - connected to the vernal equinox

14

What are some of the different branches of Christianity?

Catholic
Mormons
Protestants: Evangelical, Baptist, Methodist, Lutherans, Presbyterians, Church of England, Mennonites/Amish/Quakers

15

What is the Apostle’s Creed? Why was it written?

A statement of faith

To counter "heretical" groups

16

Who wrote most of the books of the New Testament? What is the general nature/content
of these books?

Paul

Advice to the early church on doctrine, leadership, and worship, as well as Paul's understanding of the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus including events of Jesus' life

17

How do Protestant branches of Christianity differ from the Roman Catholic Church?

Protestants emphasize scripture as the soul word of God; Catholics consider tradition coequal with scripture

Catholics maintain that the church wrote the scripture, therefore, their traditions are at least equal to it while Protestants do not.

18

How does the Eastern Orthodox differ from the Roman Catholic Church?

Roman Catholic Church:
Pope is religious and political leader
Concerned with political realities of a decaying world
Allowed statues as well as icons
Used sprinkling of water for baptism
Priests and monks practiced celibacy
Worship performed in Latin

Eastern Orthodox:
Didn't recognize authority of the pope
Developed most of the thinkers and leaders of the early church
Allowed only icons
Baptism by full immersion
Allowed marriage before ordination
Worship performed in Greek

19

What general content comprises the remainder of the Christian New Testament?

The Hebrew Bible, Letters of Paul, and the Gospels

20

What is a gospel? Which are the four gospels that made it into the Christian bible?

A gospel is the historical context of Jesus' life

Mark, John, Matthew, and Luke

21

When did Jesus’ followers begin to preach?

The Festival of Shavuot (now known as Pentecost)

22

What caused the rift between Jews & Christians?

Paul saying that one could become Christian without being Jewish first. Christianity could then become an independent universal religion rather than a sect of Judaism.

23

When & why did Christianity become the official religion of Rome?

337 CE when Constantine was baptized and converted as he lie dying

24

What was the nature of the medieval papacy? How did it lead to the Protestant Reformation?

Christianity was basically the only religion of Europe and Roman Catholic was the only church for Western Europeans. It became the only secure leadership in medieval Europe.

The church's role in politics led to abuse (went to war, gathered land and wealth, church offices being given to those favored) so they tried to revolutionize the church and destroy the hold of the catholic church.

25

How did the Protestant reformation begin? How did the printing press aid the Reformation?

It started with Martin Luther. He called for moral reform by protesting sale of indulgences: could buy forgiveness for the living or dead; release sounds from purgatory

Luther wrote the Ninety-Five Theses as grounds for debate on this and the printing press helped circulate his ideas

26

How did the Roman Catholic Church respond to the Protestant Reformation?

With the Catholic Counter Reformation and defined "what is Roman Catholic"

27

What was Vatican II? What did the Catholic Church decide during Vatican II?

A response to modernity.

Non-Catholics recognized as true Christians
Vernacular allowed in mass
Index of prohibited books abolished
Congregational participation encouraged
Church officially declared jews not responsible for the death of Jesus

28

Who is Jesus?

A messiah

29

Where and how was Jesus born?

Bethelem- home of David from divine conception

30

When did Jesus begin to preach?

At age 30 after being baptized

31

What was Jesus' first significant public act?

His baptism by John the baptist

32

Who did Jesus believe he was? Who did others believe he was?

A rabbi or teacher

33

What are the events of the last week of his life?

He entered Jerusalem on Sunday. He partook in his final meal on Thursday with is disciples. He went to the garden of gethsemane to pray for a few hours. Betrayed by Judas and was arrested. Tried by the Jewish high court then had a hearing before points pilate. Crucified and died.

34

How was he greeted when he entered Jerusalem the last Sunday before his death?

With acceptance and acclaim. He was celebrated by palms being waved at him.

35

What was the last supper? What did Jesus tell his disciples during the last supper?

His final meal with his disciples. He said he received a vision showing that Peter would deny him three times and that Judas would betray him. Spoke of the Temple of Solomon being destroyed

36

When was Jesus arrested? Where was he arrested? Who tried him?

Thursday, the day before his crucifixion.

The garden of gethsemane

Jewish high court then Pontius Pilate

37

When was Jesus crucified? Why was he crucified?

The next friday morning from the day he was tried. The Jews voted and they wanted him to be executed due to the fear of him overthrowing Rome

38

When did Jesus rise from the dead?

The Sunday after his death

39

Who is Paul? Why is Paul important to Christianity?

The founder of Christianity. A theologian. He attempt to systematize the beliefs of Christianity and is the author of 14 books in the New Testament. He traveled across Europe preaching.

40

Who was Martin Luther? What was his contribution to Christianity?

Teacher of theology. Lectured on Paul's letters. Called for reform of the Church and started the protestant reformation

41

What is transubstantiation?

An understanding of how Christ can be truly present in the eucharist

42

What is “original sin”? And why does it matter?

Adam and Eve. It symbolizes all of humanity's first sin. Sin transformed human nature in a way that was bound to affect their descendants.

43

What is the Christian concept of grace?

The ultimate expression of God's love.

44

What is the Christian concept of salvation?

Jesus Christ had acted to bring salvation from sin to the world.

45

What is the Holy Trinity? How did it attempt to solve the problem of monotheism?

Father, son, and holy spirit/ghost. It's seen as three persons in one substance and God is a single divine substance made up by three subsistences

46

What is the “kingdom of God”? What are some of the different ways it is understood in Christianity?

A new era of peace and holiness.
For Jesus, it was not an ordinary realm but the state of affairs that exists when human beings recognize God's authority over the world and respond in love and obedience to God's will.
Or it mean she e world as it ought to be, a world in which God's love and righteous rule are fully realized
Or a future event to be heralded by dramatic signs such as a darkening sun and stars falling form heaven.
Or is already present within Jesus and his followers