Flashcards in Islam Deck (35):
What type of religion is Islam?
What does the word “Muslim” mean?
One who submits to God
Who is Allah? What do Muslims believe about Allah?
High God. Same deity worshipped by the Jews and Christians.
They believe he is complete, eternal, undivided, omnipresent, omniscient, and omnipotent.
What is predestination, what do the Muslims believe about it, & why do the Muslims believe in it?
Predestination: success or failure of each human being must be predetermined.
Muslims believe humans have the ability to choose from a set of divinely created acts.
Muslims believe it because God knows all things, rules the world, and plans each event, all things must be predetermined.
What does one have to do in order to be considered a Muslim?
Shahadah: Confession of faith
Repeat the creed "There is no God but Allah; Muhammad is the messenger of Allah"
What are the Five Pillars? And how is each performed/practiced?
1. The Shahadah
Shahadah: Confession of faith. Must be repeated everyday
Daily prayer: Praying 5x a day. Wash before to cleanse the impurities then prostrate facing Mecca.
Almsgiving: Charity required by Islamic law. Assessed like a tax collected at a mosque where 100% of donations go to the poor.
Fasting: Must restrain from eating, drinking, smoking, and sex during daylight hours.
Pilgrimmage or "The Hajj": Muslims are expected to make the pilgrimage to the Ka'ba in Mecca once in their lifetime.
What is meant by “orthopraxy”? How does this concept differ from the concept of “orthodoxy” (predominant in the Christian religion)?
Orthopraxy: To actually practice the religion and having that be of importance.
Orthodoxy is more just reading the holy book without necessarily practicing it.
Who is Muhammad?
The prophet who had Gabriel appear to him and speak the words of the Quran to him.
Who was Muhammad's first wife? How did she affect his life?
Khadija. She helped convince Muhammad that the vision he received were a real gift from God.
During what Arabic month did Muhammad receive his first revelation from God?
What did the angel Gabriel tell Muhammad to “do”?
"Recite" chapter by chapter of verses of scripture.
Who is Ishmael?
The man saved by God in the desert as a baby (this area is now sacred and near Mecca). Believed to have built the enclosure around the meteor in Mecca with Abraham.
What is an imam?
Community member chosen to lead prayers in Sunni Islam.
What is the Qur’an?
What does the word “Qur’an” mean?
Who wrote the Qur’an?
Why do Muslims say the Qur’an cannot be translated?
Reading or hearing it in another language does not convey the divine blessing of the original Arabic.
What is the Ka’ba?
An enclosure surrounding a meteor sacred to ancient Arabs
According to Muslims, who built the Ka’ba?
Abraham and Ishmael
Where is the Ka’ba located?
What is the mosque?
A place of prostration
When are Muslims expected to pray in the mosque?
Who leads the prayer in the mosque?
What functions does the mosque serve?
A place for prayer, a place for Muslims to discuss politics and the affairs of the community, as well as living quarters.
Who are the Sunnis? What do they believe/practice?
Sunnis: 85% of Muslims are. More traditional in the sense they consider themselves the guardians of orthodoxy.
Believe the religious authority is the Qur'an and tradition
Believed that there should've been an election after Muhammad's death.
Have a tradition of reading and interpreting the Qur'an
Who are the Shi’ites? What do they believe/practice?
Shi'ites represent a rupture in the basic religion.
Believed that the one to follow Muhammad after his death should've been by inheritance. They believe "divine inspiration" can be inherited.
They re-enact the passion of Husayn (Muhammad's descendent who was killed when Shi'ites were persecuted) every year.
Believes the Sunnis tampered with the Qur'an, so it is mistrusted.
Believe there are divinely inspired imams who speak with the authority of God
Many believe in Madhi: a messiah who will lead the world into an era of justice
Who are the Sufis? What do they believe/practice?
They are more concerned with a mystical union with God. They seek God in the depths of their being rather than in current events.
They wish to reproduce within themselves the state of mind that made it possible for Muhammad to receive the revelations of the Quran.
They wanted to go back to the spirit of the quran rather than be caught up in the literal letter of the law.
Constantly open to the possibilities of new truths.
Whirling Dervishes: Sect that literally whirls
How does Islam/ the Qur’an view women and women’s rights?
Originally very egalitarian concerning the role of women.
Muhammad was concerned with the plight of women and sought to expand women's roles which led to a number of changes expressed in the Quran.
The Quran gave women rights of inheritance and divorce
The Quran granted women the right to ask for divorce and allowed them to retain their home should divorce occur
Before the Quran, women were considered property and then treated like property
One of the main intentions of Islam is to create a socially just society. What does this mean? Why might Islam have trouble with this in the modern world?
This means that they wanted the unfortunate to be equal with the fortunate.
Islam has trouble with this in the modern world due to the wealth and power of many Arab states. The increase of wealth and power led to a greater interest for the Middle East. The wealth is in hand of only a few which is not in line with having a socially just society.
What does the word “jihad” mean? How do modern-day extremist leaders use this word differently from its intended meaning in the Qur’an?
Modern day extremists use the world to mean "holy war". The Quran even went over when war is allowed, or the lesser jihad. War should only come when being attacked to use as a defense, when they ran out of all other options, and as long as they don't kill civilians, women, or children.
How was Muhammad influenced by Judaism and Christianity?
He never insisted they should convert to Islam since their message was the same
How did Muhammad come into contact with Jews & Christians?
Trade with other cultures.
What beliefs do Jews, Christians, and Muslims have in common?
They believe in the same God. All built on old pagan rites of their region. The messages the messengers had received from God express the truths differently, but the messages were the same.
What is a caliphate?
A form of government that lasted for hundreds of years. Filled with the leaders (caliphs) that came after Muhammad who ruled as the representatives of God and the prophet and had both religious and political authority.