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Flashcards in Christianity Deck (42)
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• Usually on a Sunday, 1-2 hours
• At a meeting house, church, parish, chapel, basilica and cathedral
• Cathedral: from “kathedra” (chair); the Bishop’s chair
• Basilica: building with a relic or with historical significance



• Roman catholic + orthodox churches: male only, at every level
• Anglican/Episcopalean Churches: female priests, some female bishops, but no female Archbishop of Canterbury yet (primate)
• Protestant Churches: Baptists can have female ministers, UCC many women at all levels, Evangelical churches, usually only men



• Prayers, hymns, readings from scripture, sermon, gathering and greeting
• Liturgy: liturgy of the word, liturgy of the Eucharist
• Liturgical vs. non- liturgical services
• Priest vs. Minister



• For catholics = transubstantiation vs for protestants = consubstantiation
• Meanings of Baptism:
o Cleansing away of sin (previous life/original sin)
o Infant baptism vs. adult baptism
o Access to sacraments right away?
o Identity, membership



• Other catholic sacraments and orthodox sacred mysteries: in addition to the Eucharist and Baptism:
o Confession, confirmation, ordination, marriage and last rites
• For protestants: only Eucharist and Baptism are sacraments



• Confess ones sins to a priest
• First confession is at 7-8 years old
• Rite of passage
• Confessional



• Confirms the initiation of baptism; typically 12-13 years
• Preparation: instruction in catholic theology: Christianity
• Orthodox Christians: chrismation
o Happens at the same time as baptism + first communion (infant)
o No protestant



• Catholic / orthodox priest (sacrament) = male only
• Protestant minister (not a sacrament) = male or female, openly gay or straight (depending on tradition)
• Training/degree; by denomination always



• Christians marry by denomination
• Sacrament only for Catholics and Orthodox
• Catholics do a marriage prep course (family planning)
• Divorce forbidden in the catholic church; allowed among protestants (annulment an expensive option for Catholics)


Last Rite

• Prepares a believer for death
• Recommends that person to God, pleading with God to receive the person with mercy and grace
• Catholic last rites: confession, anointing with olive oil, eucharist
• Orthodox last rites: confession, eucharist


Advent (Christmas)

o A month spent preparing for the birth of jesus
o Focus on scriptures Christians believe predicted Jesus’ arrival
o 4 preceding Sundays (Dec 2 2018)
o Fast of the Nativity (40 days, orthodox Christians )


Christmas Season

o Christmas – Dec 25 (for some eastern orthodoxy still, Jan 7)
o Not his birthday
o Feast of Saturnalia / Sol Invictus


End of Christmas Season

o Feast of Epiphany (Jan 6)
o In the west, ends the Christmas season (12 days of Christmas)
o In the east, celebrates the baptism of jesus



• 6 week period preceeding easter
• Ash Wednesday: first day of lent (Mar 6 2019)
• Period of self denial, fasting


Pre Lenten Celebration

• Mardi gras, carnival in catholic cultures
• Shrove Tuesday or Monday in Protestant cultures
• Orthodox cultures; great lent starts with clean Monday, 48 days of fasting before easter


Holy week

• Orthodox: end of fast, austerity to celebration
• Catholics / protestants: palm Sunday, maundy Thursday, good Friday: day of jesus’s death, easter Sunday


Start of Christianity

4th century CE


Complications of Christian History

- None of the earliest followers of Jesus were Christian (or if they were…)
- Which Christian’s history would we choose?


Paul of Tarsus 1st century

- 40-55 CE
- Greece and Asia Minor (modern turkey)
- Pauline Christianity = Greco-Roman religion
- No circumcision, no food restrictions (kashrut)



- Believed knowledge could save you
- Jesus only ‘appeared’ to be human, was not actually



- Demiurges (evil) were behind creation, Judaism, and the Hebrew Bible
- Counselled rejection of all things Jewish
- Rejected Gospel of Matthew from his canon (bible)


Imperial Christianity 4th century

- Constantine was Roman emperor 306-337 CE
- Wins in battle believes because he carried the chi-ro into battle
- Makes Christianity legal in Roman empire


Arius from Alexandria

Believed Jesus was not eternal but created, Jesus was homoiousion= similar substance to god


Athanasius from Alexandria

Co eternity between god the father and jesus the son, jesus was homoousion: one being the same substance as god (same belief as aria)


Nicene Creed

Nicea (325 CE), nicene creed establishes the concept of the trinity (co equal Father, son, holy spirit)


After Nicea

If jesus is co equal to god, what is mary?


Bishop of Alexandria

Mary was the "mother of god", Theotokos= bearer of god


Fall of Rome 476 CE

Constantine uses Christianity as a weapon against people after the religion is legalized


Back to Empire

637 CE fall of Jerusalem to Muslim caliph Umar, 1010 CE- church of the holy sepulcher burned down by a muslim, this led to the crusades


Crusades 11th century

1099 CE crusaders win back Jerusalem, they'll lose it again in 1187 to muslims, power changes will change several times in the 1200's


East West split 11th century

Rome assumes central authority, 1054 CE Bishop of Constantinople splits from bishop of rome (the pope), this results in the creation of Eastern orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism


Filoque clause

From: and i believe in the holy spirit, the lord, the giver of life, who proceeds from the father. To: -- who proceeds from the father and the son


Eastern Orthodoxy

- Cyrillic alphabet mix of new language and Greek (possibly Greek and Russian)
- Eastern orthodox art 7th century very distinct
- Iconoclasts (believe should not pray before a painting, smashed icons, argued that praying before an image looks like idolatry) V.S. iconodules (icons should be used, they win debate icons are used)


Many Orthodox Christianities

- Eastern orthodox (Russian, Greek, Ukrainian, Albanian, Romanian, etc) no center of orthodox authority, no prime church or pope
- Oriental orthodox (Armenia, Egypt, Syria, Ethiopia, and India)
- Assyrian orthodox (Iraq, Iran, Turkey, and also Syria)
No such thing as orthodox Christianity, there are several blocks of orthodoxies


Martin Luther 1483-1546

Corruption of Rome
- Exploitation of northern European churches
- Indulgences (buy things get promised heaven)
95 theses of Luther (1517 CE)
- Wittenburg
- Direct challenge and refutation of many catholic ideas


Charges against Luther

Charges (1521 CE)
- Excommunication: placing one outside the community of believers
- Political subversion basically treason


Sola Fide

Humans can do nothing to affect salvation, predetermined (Luther)


Sola Scriptura

All practice and belief found in scripture alone (Luther)


Effects of Luther protests

- Protestant Christian reformation (come after Luther’s protests)
#2 local authority = multiple splintering 16th – 19th century
- “a priesthood of believers”
- Makes everyone equal you do not need a priest and Church
- Calvin/ Calvinism


Wars of religion

- Catholics and protestants killing each other for hundreds of years in France
- Britain/ Ireland protestant chistians, irish fought back against brits
- Netherlands, Belgium, Luxenberg
- Thirty years war triggered by event at progue castle, threw catholic administrators out of the windows


Modern Catholicism

- Vatican II: 1962-65 most recent Vatican council
- Modernization of some Catholic practices, not others
- Ecumenical
- “traditionalists”


Order of the gospels

Matthew, Mark, Luke, John