chronic exam 1-fluid imbalance Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in chronic exam 1-fluid imbalance Deck (19):
1

most at risk for fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base imbalance

infants
severely ill adults
disoriented or immobile clients
elderly

2

% of adult body weight consisted of fluids

55-60%

3

intracellular fluids:
constitutes ____% of body weight
provides cells with...

40% of body weight
provides cells with internal aqueous medium necessary for chemical functions

4

extracellular fluid:
constitutes ___% of body weight
Serves as....

15-20% of body weight
serves as body's transportation system, carrying electrolytes, nutrients, oxygen, and water to cells and removing products

5

extracellular fluid consists of

interstitial fluid (fluid found in the tissues)
intravascular fluid (blood)

6

filtration

movement of fluid through a membrane as a result of hydrostatic pressure differences

7

diffusion

process by which SOLID, PARTICULATE MATTER moves from an area of higher concentration to lower concentration

8

osmosis

process by which a solvent (water) moves through a semi-permeable membrane from a solution of lower concentration to higher concentration

9

active transport

movement of materials across the cell membrane by the use of metabolic activity and energy expenditure

10

fluid intake:
regulated by...
thirst is stimulated by...
water acquired from...

regulated primarily thirst mechanism in hypothalamus
thirst stimulated by by increase serum osmolarity and decreased blood volume
water acquired from food and oxidation of food during digestion

11

fluid losses occur through

Kidneys (1cc per minute)
GI tract (100cc in 24 hours)
Skin via sweat
Lungs (400cc in 24 hours)

12

aldosterone

mineralcorticoid produced by the adrenal cortex
causes kidneys to reabsorb Na+ and excrete K+
increased Na+ causes increased H2O retention

13

ADH

released from the posterior lobe of the pituitary in response to stimulation from the hypothalamus
increase reabsorption of H2O by the kidney tubules
ADH releas is increased with a decrease in the body'd fluid volume

14

causes of fluid deficit

prolonged vomiting, diarrhea
hemorrhage
wound/fistula drainage
burn exudate
diuretic therapy
Diabetes Insipidus, Diabetic Ketoacidosis

15

fluid deficit assessment findings

dry skin and mucous membranes
poor skin turgor
coated tongue
Low BP, tachycardia
collapsed veins, weak pulses
oliguria (decreased urine output)
lethargy
thirst
fever

16

fluid deficit lab findings

increased Hgb and Hct
Increased BUN
Increased specific gravity
increased serum osmolarity

17

causes of fluid excess

increased ingestion
decreased excretion of water
renal failure
inability of heart to circulate fluids (to maintain renal perfusion) as occurs with CHF

18

fluid excess assessment findings

generalized edema (anasarca)
weight gain
crackles/rales
bounding pulse
distended neck veins
headache
decreased orientation
visual changes
seizure, coma
low serum sodium level

19

fluid excess lab findings

Decreased Hgb and Hct
Decreased BUN
Decreased specific gravity
Decreased serum osmolarity