Lung cancer Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lung cancer Deck (10):
1

Risk factors

Smoking (associated with chronic tissue irritation, responsible for 85% of all lung cancer deaths)
Secondhand smoke
Occupation exposure asbestos, cold distillates, radiation, arsenic)
Increased radon

2

SCLC small cell lung cancer (oat cell)

Rapidly growing
High rate of metastasis
Surgical resectability

3

NSCLC non-small cell lung cancer includes

Squamous cell
Adenocarcinoma (gland)
Large cell

4

NSCLC non-small cell lung cancer

Slower growing
Surgical respectability good for stage one or two

5

Metastasis occurs by

Direct extension, via blood or lymph system

6

Sites of metastasis

1. liver
2. lymph nodes
3. walls of esophagus
4, pericardium
5. Brain
6. bone

7

Clinical manifestations

75% have persistent cough
50% have hemoptysis
Shortness of breath
Change in respiratory pattern
Hoarseness (laryngeal nerve invasion)
Chest, shoulder or arm pain
Recurrent respiratory infection
Unilateral wheezing
Weight loss
Clubbing

8

Diagnostics

Cytologic exam of the early morning sputum may identify malignant cells
Pleural effusion fluid for cytology
CT scans
Fiberoptic bronchoscopy
Thoracoscopy
Needle biopsy, MRI

9

Surgery management

Only one third of tumors are resectable
Surgery not indicated if metastasis present
Treatment of choice for stage one and 2 NSCLC
Procedure: thoracotomy (removal of tumor), lobectomy (lobe), pneumonectomy (entire lung)

10

Post operative care thoracotomy

Chest tube is inserted to drain air, blood, fluid from plural space
CT restores intrapleural pressure which allows reexpansion of lung