Chronic Inflammation Flashcards Preview

Path Pro > Chronic Inflammation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chronic Inflammation Deck (29)
Loading flashcards...
1

Define Chronic Inflammation

Prolonged inflammation with associated repair

2

How can Chronic Inflammation arise

1. Takes over from acute inflammation
2. “De novo”- Without preceding acute inflammation
3. Alongside acute inflammation

3

Give 3 examples of when Chronic Inflammation can arise “De Novo”

Autoimmune conditions
Prolonged exposure to toxic agents
Chronic infections

4

How does Chronic Inflammation appear
What are the 2 predominant cell types
Name 3 others

Variable appearances
Lymphocytes and Macrophages (Histiocytes)

Eosinophils, Fibro/Myofibroblasts
Giant cells (Granulomatous inflammation

5

Describe the Appearance of a Macrophage in 3 ways

Large cells
Abundant cytoplasm with Phagolysosomes
Can have a Slipper shaped nucleus

6

Outline the functions of Macrophages

1. Phagocytosis and Antigen presentation
2. Synthesis of mediators
3. Control and regulation of inflammatory response

7

Describe the Appearance of a Lymphocyte in 2 ways

1. Small cells
2. Large Central nucleus with thin rim of cytoplasm

8

What are the 2 types of Lymphocyte? How can they distinguished by appearance

Which one has various types and what are the main 2 types. Outline their functions

T and B cells, they can’t

Main 2 T cells are;
- Helper (CD4+): Assist other inflammatory cells
- Cytotoxic (CD8+): Destroy pathogens

9

What does a B cell mature into
Describe the appearance of this in 4 ways

A plasma cell


1. Eccentric Nucleus (Pushed to one side)
2. Clock-face chromatin (Clumped into spheres at edge of nucleus)
3. Peri-nuclear clearing (Golgi)
4. Slightly larger than a T cell

10

Outline the function of a Plasma cell
Give an example

Produces antibodies which neutralise pathogens
Immunoglobulins

11

Regarding its appearance, what does an Eosinophil look like?
In 2 ways explain why

Describe its function, and suggest 2 occasions this happens

1. “Tomato with sunglasses”
2. Bi-lobed nucleus
3. Granular cytoplasm stains red

Releases mediators- Parasitic infestations + Allergic/ hypersensitivity reactions

12

Describe the function of Fibro/ Myofibroblasts

Regeneration and repair by Producing, Secreting and Laying down collagen

13

What are Giant cells

Name 3 and give an example for each of when they are present

Multinucleate cells formed from fusion of macrophages

1. Foreign Body Giant Cell: When a foreign body is present
2. Langhans Giant Cell: Tuberculosis
3. Touton Giant Cell: Fat necrosis/ Xanthomas

14

Describe the Appearance of a Foreign Body Giant Cell

Describe the appearance of a Langhans Giant Cell (What shape oftenly)

Describe the appearance of a Touton Giant Cell

Foreign Body: Randomly arranged nuclei

Langhans: Nuclei around periphery of cell (Horse shoe shape)

Touton: Nuclei arranged in a ring at centre of cell

15

What are the main cell types present in;

1) Rheumatoid arthritis
2) Chronic Gastritis
3) Leishmaniasis

1) Plasma cells
2) Lymphocytes
3) Macrophages

16

What are 4 Complications of Chronic Inflammation

1. Fibrosis (Collagen deposition)

2. Impaired function (Rarely= Increased function)

3. Atrophy

4. Immune response stimulated

17

Give 2 examples of Fibrosis

Give 3 examples for Impaired function

Give 1 example for Atrophy

F: Cirrhosis, Cholecystitis (Gall bladder inflammation)

IF: Ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, Cirrhosis

A: Gastritis

18

How does Fibrosis of the gall bladder(Cholecystitis) occur in 2 steps

How does the gall bladder appear

Repeated obstruction of bile duct by gall stones
Repeated Acute Inflammation bouts-> Chronic

Thickened and pale

19

What are 5 symptoms of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

- Abdominal pain
- Altered bowel motion
- Weight loss
- Rectal bleeding
- Diarrhoea

20

What 2 conditions come under the term, Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Compare them in regards to;

1. Area affected
2. Pattern of inflammation
3. Part of area affected
4. Presence of granulomas
5. Likelihood of rectal bleeding

Crohn’s Disease:

1. Can affect all of GI tract
2. Discontinuous patches of inflammation (Skip Lesions)
3. Transmural (Full thickness of bowel wall affected)
4. Sometimes Granulomas are present
5. Rectal bleeding is less likely

Ulcerative Colitis:

1. Large bowel affected only
2. Continuous
3. Mucosa and Submucosa only
4. No granulomas
5. Rectal bleeding is more likely

21

What stage of liver damage is Cirrhosis

Name 4 causes

What do the nodules on a Cirrhhosed liver show

End stage damage to liver

Alcohol
Hepatitis
Drugs/ Toxins
Fatty Liver disease

Areas of Fibrosis and attempted Regeneration

22

What is a Granulomatous Inflammation

A type of Chronic inflammation in which Granulomas are seen

23

What is a Granuloma

A collection of Epithelioid Histiocytes (Elongated macrophages that are packed together tightly) surrounded by lymphocytes

24

What are 3 causes of Granulomatous Inflammation

- Foreign body presence
- Infection by “tough” bacteria (Hard to destroy)
- Idiopathic infections (Unknown cause)

25

Name 2 “Tough” bacteria
Why are they hard to destroy (2 reasons)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Mycobacterium leprae (Causes leprosy)

- Thick cell wall
- Mycolic acids (Surface proteins, resist phagocytosis)

26

What is happening in the centre of a Mycobacterium Granuloma

Name 2 Idiopathic causes of Granulomatous Inflammation

Caseous Necrosis

Crohn’s Disease
Sarcoidosis

27

Describe the histological appearance of Crohn’s disease

Non-caseating Granuloma

28

Describe the histological appearance of Sarcoidosis

Name 3 organs that are affected and how they present

Multiple Non-caseating granulomas

Lymph nodes- Enlarged
Lungs- Shortness of breath
Skin- Lumps

29

Name 1 condition where eosinophils count is high

Hodgkin’s lymphoma