circulatory system of a mammal Flashcards Preview

My A-level biology revision > circulatory system of a mammal > Flashcards

Flashcards in circulatory system of a mammal Deck (15):

what is the job of specialist exchange surfaces?

absorb nutrients absorb respiratory gasses absorb excretory products


state two factors that make it more likely that an organism will have a specialised transport medium or a circulatory pump

surface area to volume ratio how active the organism is lower SA to V ratio and more active - a greater need for specialised transport system with a pump


list the common features of a transport system

a suitable medium in which to carry material e.g. blood - normally water-based liquid as water good solute

a form of mass transport - transport medium moved around in bulks over large distances - more rapid than diffusion

a closed system of tubular vessels containing transport medium and forms branching network

the mechanism for moving transport medium - requires pressure difference - in animals = muscular contraction and in plants = evaporation

mechanism to maintain mass flow movements in one direction - valves

a mechanism for the mass flow of water or gasses - in animals - intercostal muscles

means of controlling the flow of the transport medium to suit the changing needs of different parts of the organism


mammals have...

a closed double circulatory system


why does the blood pass twice through the heart?

when blood passes through the lungs, the pressure is reduced, and if low-pressure blood passed immediately to the rest of the body, circulation = very slow


why is it necessary that substances are delivered to the rest of the body quickly?

mammals have a high body temperature - high rate of metabolism


what are the vessels that make up the circulatory system of a mammal?

arteries veins capillaries


what is the process that transports blood from vessels to cells?



why is diffusion rapid?

large SA to V ratio short distance steep diffusion gradient


diagram of the mammalian circulatory system


what is the name of the blood vessel that joins the right ventricle of the heart to the capillaries?

pulmonary artery


what is the name of the blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood away from the heart? 



what is the name of the blood vessel that carries deoxygenated blood away from the kidney? 

renal vein


what is the name of the first main blood vessel that an oxygen molecule reaches after being absorbed from an alveolus?

pulmonary vein


what is the name of the blood vessel that has the highest blood pressure?