Flashcards in CISA Review Deck (68):
Such attacks are contreally initiated and involve the use of multiple compromised computers. The attacks work by fuloding the target site with spurious data, thereby overwhelming the network and other related resources.
Cheif information security officer
A senior level corporate official responsible for articulating and enforcingthe policies that companies uses to protect their information assets.
CISO is a much broader roll than a chief security officer (CSO ) who is normally only responsible fro pysical security within the organization
DAC ( descritionary access control ) cannot override MAC ( Mandatory access control ) , DAC is an additional filter, prohibiting still more access wtih the same exclusionary principle
cyber criminals take advantage of existing gap in the legislation of different countries when planning syber attacks in order to avoid posecution
Person who try to break the security of and gain access to somone else system without being invited to do so
Target of attack - Specfiic computer, Source of attack Computer is the object of crime. Prepetrator uses another computer to launch attack
Fraud, Unauthorized access, Phishing, Installing key loggers
Computer is the tool of crime. Target is data or information stored in the computer
Social engineering methods
Computer symbolizes the crime.Target is the user of the computers.
Social Engineering methods
Phishing, Fake websites, scam mails, Spam mails and Fake resumes for employement
Occurs when unothorzied modification affect the integrity of the data or code. Cryptographic hash is a primary defense against alteration attacks
Comprise a collection of compromised computers ( called zombie computers) running software, usually installed vaia worms, Torjan horses or back doors.
Examples: Smurt attack, Ping flood, SYS Flood, Teadrop attack, peer to peer attack, Permanant Denial of service attack, Application level flood attack, Nuke, DDOS, Reflected attack,
Occurs when misconfigured network devices allow packets to be sent toall hosts on a particular network viea the broadcast address of the network
Occurs when the target system is overwhelmed with ping packets
send a flood of TCP/SYN packts with forged sender address, causing half open connections and saturates available connections cpacity of the target machine
Involves sending mangled IP fragments with overlapping, oversized payloads to the target machine
Redirects outgoaing messages from the client back onto the client, preventing outside access, as well as flooding the client with the sent packets
Involves sending forged requests to a large number of computers that will reply to the request. Thesource IP address is spoofed to that of the targeted victime, causing the replies to flood
A user receives an email message that appears tohae originated from one source but actually was sent from another source.
A denial of service attack gthat brings down network or service by folloding it with large amount of traffic
Commonly called back doors. Bit of code embedded in program by programmers to quickly gain access during the testing or debugging phase.
An active attack in which the intruder present an identity other than the original identity. Impersonation both by people and machines fall under this category. Masquerading by machine ( also called as IP spoofing ) - A forged IP address is presented
A combination of passive and active mode of attack. This form of attack is effective particularly where the receiving end of the communicationchannel is automated and will act on receipt and interpretation of the information packets without human intervention
The criminally fraudulent process of attempting to acquire sensitive information, such as usernames, passwords and credit card details by masquerading as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication
A pinpoint attack against a subset of people to undermine a company or organization
An attack that aminsn to redirect the traffic of a web site to a bogus web site. It can be conducted either by changing the hoset file on a victims computer or by exploiting a vulnerability in DNS server software.
The human side of breaking into computer system
act of following authorized person through a secured door or electronically attaching to authorized telecommunication link.
Piggybacking is considered a physical access exposure
Also knows as Time of Check (TOC). Time of Use (TOU) attack. Exploit a small windo of time between the time that security control is applied and time that the service is used.
carfule programming and good administration practices help to reduce race conditions
Resource Enumeration and Browsing
When the attacker lists the various resources on targeted hosts and networks. Browsing a form of rresource enumeration attack and is preformed by a manual search.
The difference between the rounding down technique and salami technicuq is that in rounding down, the program rounds off by the smallest money fraction, whereas salami technique truncate last few digits
The practice of marking a series of symbols on sidewalks and wall to indicate nearby wireless access points
Similar to war driving, but a vehicle is not used. The potential hackers walk around the vicinity with handheld device or PDA
The practice of driving around businesses or residential neighborhoods while scanning with a notebook computer, hacking toold software and sometimes with a global positioning system to serarch for wireless netowrk names
Another risk of peer to peer computing is that users may expose there IP addresses, which can lead to IP spoofing
THe postincident review phase shoudl determine which vulnerabilities were not addressed and why and input provieded for improvment to the policies and procedures implemented to address vulnerabilities
involves eavesdroppingon information being transmitted over telecommunication lines
Authentication is typically categorized as "something you know" PASSWORD. Somthing you have "TOKEN CARD" and something you are "BIOMETRIC FEATURES"
Initial password may be allocated by security administrator or generated by the system itself
Practices such as keeping the administrator passoword in a sealed envelope, kept in a locked cobinate and available only to top managers, should be implemented
The main disadvantage comparerd to other biometris methods is the lackof uniqueness of hand geometry data
Advantage of Iris identification
the contact with the device is not needed
Disadvantage of Iris identification
high cost of system, as compared to other biometric technologies and the high amount of storage requirements needed to uniquely identify a user
Retina scan is extremely reliable and it has the lowest fales-acceptance rate among the current biometric methods
Disadvantage of retina scanning
includes the need for fairly close physical conact with scanning device, which impairs user acceptance, and the high cost
The main disadvantage of face recongintion is the lack of uniqueness, which means that people who look like may fool the device
The main disadvantage is capturing the uniqueness of a signature particularly when a user does not sighn his / her name in a consistent manner
Disadvantage of VPN
lack of central authority and can be difficult to troubleshoot
A good practice will terminate all VPN to the same end point in a so called VPN concentrator, and will not accept VPNs directed at other parts of the network
The drawback of an IPS is that it may inadvertently block legitimate traffic
Which of the following attacks targets the Secure Socket Layer SSL
Man in the middle
which of the following virus prevention techniques can be implemented through hardware
Example of deterrance
installation of firewalls for information systems
while reviewing the business continuity plan of an organization, an IS auditor observed taht the organization data and software files are backed up on a periodic basis which characteristic of an effective plan does this demonstrate
MAO is the maximum amount of system downtime that is tolerable. It is used as synanym for RTO. However RTO denotes an objectiv/target, while MAO constitutes a vital necessity for an organisations survival
A redundancy check
detect transmission errors by appending calculated bit on to the end of each segment of data
A resonableness check
compares data to predefined reasonability limit or occurrence rates established for the data
A parity check
is a hardware control that detects data errors when data are read from one computer to another, from memory or during transmission
detects transpostion or transcription errors
WEP has been shown to be a very weak encryption technique and can be cracked within a minute
which of the following encryption techniques will best protect a wireless network froma man in the middle attack
Randomly generated pre shared key PSK
system logs are automated reports which identify most of the activities performed on the computer
operation problem reports are used by operator to log computer operation problems
order or DRP
1 BIA 2 develop recovery strategies 3 Develop specific plan 4 tested and implemented