Flashcards in citizenship, social rights and universalism Deck (10)
-everyone has access to same standard of provision
-provided through a set of institiutions that act in an impartial way regardless of individual circumstances
-because all citizens have the same social rights and fundamental needs,
-welfare should be provided only to those who are thought to need it, through means or income tests.
Negative: targeting services on the basis of individual means
Positive: providing additional services and resources for disadvantaged groups.
aims of social policy
To reduce poverty and inequality, create a more inclusive society through social rights linked to citizenship.
To strengthen social solidarity.
To pool risks – increase economic security in an efficient and socially just way.
To extend decommodification and the reduction of dependence on the labour market.
Can any or all of these aims be best achieved by providing welfare on the basis of a principle of universalism ?
The needs of other subordinated
marginalised or excluded
marginalisation (non normal)
the needs of some are seen as less central, less important than the needs of others
example – segregation of disabled people
subordination (non normal)
the needs of some are defined in terms of and dependent on the needs of others
example – women’s entitlement to benefits was primarily dependent on their husband’s entitlement.
Exclusion (non normal)
the needs of some are ignored
example – ‘residence rules’ which made it impossible for most black migrants to qualify for entitlement to local authority housing
Fiona Williams: the postwar welfare settlement and ‘normality’
The postwar welfare settlement was built around certain assumptions about ‘normal’ social relationships
‘needs’ in the postwar welfare settlement were defined in relation to an idea of the ‘normal’ citizen – the white, male, able-bodied breadwinner
the needs of others were defined in relation to this idea of the normal.