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Davis’ leadership positives

Davis supported tough measures to squash any resistance or opposition to the confederate cause. He wanted to create a strong national army so he introduced the 1862 conscription act to increase the national army.
He was also prepared to introduce martial law in areas threatened by the union.
He urged high taxes on cotton and slavery and he supported the control of supplies to support the confederate army.


Davis’ leadership negatives

Davis found it hard to work with people who did not want to support his decisions.
He had four Secretaries of State and six secretaries of war.
He made 16 major appointments in cabinet.
Benjamin, Mallory and Reagan served from start to finish (Benjamin was at one point secretary of justice, war and state).
He was criticised for lengthy cabinet meetings that lasted days without any decision.
He failed to nationalise southern railroads and he did not deal with opposition harshly enough.
Davis often let departments run themselves except the war department. This had 57,000 employees and was responsible for running the war.


Confederate congress

Made to of one house. Of 267 who served 1/3 of them had been in congress.
There was no party system, this made it difficult to pass legislation.
Over time the confederate struggled and voters voted for those who wished to stay in the union.
12 members of senate were recognised opponents of Davis.


State governments working with Davis

Many state governors were against giving Davis too much power.
Governors Brown and Vance hindered the war effort. Brown of Georgia opposes conscription and exempted hundreds of Georgians from the draft. Vance of North Carolina kept their resources when confederate army needed it.
It was said the confederate died of states rights.
However many states supported confederacy and cooperated well with the government at Richmond. Many state governors who were commanders-in-chief of their own state troops played a role in recruiting soldiers, raising tactics and declaring martial law in places. Usually got state legislatures to support government in Richmond.


Confederate and money

Despite efforts from the confederate government to raise funds a lot came from locals and state incentives.
During the early years the government depended on local communities to supply troops.
Role of the church increased with southern clergymen preaching and writing for the southern cause.
Women played a role in recruiting, making clothes and other materials for the troops. They helped set up hospitals and organised home missionary societies to care for slavers, feed orphans and help the sick.


Financial problems for the confederacy

He confederate found it difficult to sell their cotton.
The union placed a blockade and therefore the cotton trade with Britain suffered.
Most of the south’s money was in slaves or land.
Many southerners hoped war could be financed by import and export costs. Taxes placed on ships coming to ports.
Taxes increased in 1863 and was unpopular.
Christopher Menninger was treasury secretary and had the task of funding the war.
Impressment Act of March 1861 allowed the seizure of goods to support the army. It legislated what the army was already doing.
Taxation in kind act April 1863 let government agents take 10% of farmers produce. Many farmers tried to resist this but Davis said it was unfair but necessary.
Most confederate states unwilling to demand serve increases in taxes. Did introduce more taxes in goods like slaves, luxury items and corporation profits
Only 8% of income from tax compared to 20% in the union.
Confederacy allowed Menninger to raise $15 million in bonds and stock certificates.
The Erlanger loan (worth $15 million) in January 1863 allowed agents to contract for more war materials. This was short lived with many financiers pulling out with fear of losing money.
Confederacy only got 1/3 of war costs. Menninger printed money.
Inflation grew out of control. It was 5,000 times over 1861 level by 1865.
Fixing prices led to hoarding.
By 1865 they were $800 million in debt.
Menninger resigned and was replaced by George Trenholm.


Financial solutions for the confederacy

Confederate leaders were confident they would find ways through foreign purchases and development of their own resources they could maintain the war effort.
In 1861 purchasing agents sent to Europe to create trade deals.
The war department after 1861 interfered woo almost every aspect of life. It was called confederate socialism.
Ordinance bureau - led by Josiah Gorgus who ensured enough arsenal, factories and gunpowder was being produced. No other bureau was as successful.
War department - 1861 congress gave Davis power to control telegraph networks. Assumed control of railway system and companies required to share spare parts and rolling stock. Draft exemptions to railway workers and they built 3 new effective railways.
Blockade running - by autumn 1861 a blockade running fleet organised. By 1863 congress passed a bill ordering all blockade runners to carry at least 1/3 of its cargo as cotton out and war supplies in. Popular routes included Nassau in Bahamas to Charleston. 75% chance of success.
State governments - distributed salt as it was in short supply. Shift from cotton to food produce. Cotton plummeted from 4 million bales produced in 1861 to 300,000 bales by 1864.


Advantages to the confederacy

The size (750,000 square miles), it was easier to defend than attack.
River systems prevented any chance of the union capturing Richmond. The Shenandoah valley was an advantage as it was easier to attack Washington.
South had a long system of inferior lines of communication. Commanders of troops could concentrate their forces against the enemy army then another
Maryland, Delaware, Missouri and Kentucky didn’t secede but signs of confederate support. Some feel these states to join the confederate army.
Morale was high in 1861. Most southerners believed they were better fighters than the north.
7 of the 8 military colleges (not including West Point and Annapolis) were in the south.


Opposition to the confederacy

Many non slave holders in upper south were against secession. In East Tennessee and West Virginia 60,000 men joined the union army and 30,000 from other areas.
First conscription act 1862 had opposition. All men between 18-35 (then 40 and 50). Exemptions to railway workers and plantation owners with at least 20 slaves.
Draft not popular in the south. Evaders and deserters worked together to fight off recruitment officers.
Ordinary farmers angry at the 20 slave law. This gathered opposition to be changed. Yeoman farmers felt they did not gain a fair bargain for war gains.
Conscription acts removed a big amount of the workforce and lost profile when inflation occurred.
Food riots in mobile, Atlanta and Richmond in 1863.
1864 strikes only stopped when government threatened war service.


Opposition in congress

Outside of confederate congress a peace movement started by 1863. Some criticised Davis for not negotiating with Lincoln.
In congress there was no official opposition but they was a range of opposition factions.
Senator Whigfall of Texas was commonly known as the leader of Davis’ opposition.
Other opposition included Alexander Stephens, governor Brown and Robert Tombs (all from Georgia). They did everything I. Their power to discredit and embarrass Davis and his government.


Arguments against Lincoln’s leadership

Before war broke out Lincoln had little administrative experience
He often misplace priories, he focused on political matters not the war effort.
Cabinet often did more work than him.
Choices in military leaders were uninspired - McClellan, Pope, McDowell, Burnside and Hooker.
He was accused of tyranny. He suspended habeas corpus in 1862. This lead to 40,000 people being arrested for arbitrary arrest.


Arguments for Lincoln’s leadership

His ability to mange cabinet was his greatest asset
He was masterful at delegating responsibility and giving free rein to those he trusted
He recognised talent in areas essential for victory
He always remained patriotic
His ability to address his and the unions war aims
He wrote his own speeches - unlike presidents before him
He was good at shaping national strategy of unconditional surrender
Described as America’s Bismarck


Lincoln’s cabinet

It was more stable than the confederacy cabinet. 4 ex-democrats, 3 ex-Whigs and a mixture of easterners and westerners.
Secretary of State - William Seward - 12 years New York senator and now he was more conservative and not radical
Secretary of treasury - Salmon Chase - abolitionist, main spokesperson for radical side of republicans. He was critical of Lincoln and tried to remove Seward following accusations of him manipulating the president
Secretary of war - Simon Cameron - he was corrupt and then sent to the US minister in Russia. Replaced by Edwin Stanton (ex-democrat) who was once critical of Lincoln but became a code advisor. Successes included taking Richmond in 1865 following the battle of Petersburg.
Postmaster general - Montgomery Blair
Secretary of interior - Calbeb Smith
Secretary of navy - Gideon Welles
Attorney general - Edward Bates


Lincoln and congress

Following the walkout of southern congressmen after succession congress was dominated by the republicans.
105 republicans, 43 democrats and 28 unionists in 1861 in the House of Representatives.
Out of 48 senators, 31 were republicans.
Lincoln only vetoed one congressional bill despite being attacked by members of the party. Lincoln did not exercise his executive authority in cabinet and congress.
Loyalty provided the means for Lincoln to conduct war in interest of the union.


Lincoln and civil liberties

Lincoln committed to the original principles of the US. He was willing to suspend civil liberties like freedom of speech and press.
He suspended habeas corpus in Maryland allowing the arrest of suspected confederates.
April 1861 called a blockade of south and ordered spending of $12 million for military and naval measures without congress.
Lincoln said it was justifiable as he was using his war powers while congress was not in session.


Lincoln and military matters

As a commander in chief, Lincoln did not hide from responsibility.
He was involved in the leadership of the armies.
He appointed generals for political gain, for example Grant and Sherman.


Lincoln and border states

He was successful at keeping border states who had not succeeded. He respecting Kentucky’s neutrality until the confederacy infiltrated it.
September 1861 he used tough measures to arrest men of Maryland’s legislature who were suspected of working for he confederacy.


Lincoln and state governments

Most state governments dominated by republicans. State governments provided troops and resources to Lincoln for the war effort.
Despite two states falling in democrat control during the war, it didn’t affect the war effort.
City governments, church groups and local businesses made voluntary contributions to the union war effort.
United States sanitary commission in 1861 organised medical relief and supported army medical bureau.


Economy of the union

The union had an established treasury, reverses, land assets and sources of revenue from tariffs.
Agriculture was main focus after 1861, the republicans able to pass laws democrats blocked in the past.
May 1862 - department of agriculture taught farmers and encouraged scientific farming. Also homestead act offered 160 acre farms to those who worked their for 5 years.
July 1862 - Marill act provided federal lands to states to build agricultural colleges.
Higher tariffs on imported goods.
Money subsidies allowed to be given to railways with 225 million acres of land granted to railway companies and Union Pacific and central Pacific companies in 1862 built a transcontinental railway.
Union has no attempt to ration and control prices, they had enough raw materials.
But cotton mills in New England suffered as they lost their supply in the south.
Iron production increased 29% in 1864.
Business leaders expanded their quotas - especially in war related goods.
Farmers benefitted a lot. Feeding soldiers and selling to Britain made them a lot of money.
Exports in corn and what doubled and machinery in farms between 1860-1865 increased theefold


Financing the war

Salmon Chase (treasury secretary) settled banking crisis of 1861-2 by raising short term loans and creating more bonds for parole to invest in. Close to one million people invested.
2/3 of nations revenue from bonds and loans. 1/5 from tax.
August 1861 - federal tax increase of 3% an annual earnings of over $800
July 1862 - internal revenue act, taxed everything
February 1862 - legal tender act authorised $150 million in paper currency.
Inflation was only 80%
Chase stabilised banks with the national banking acts of 1863 and 1864


Negatives for the union economy

Some industries didn’t flourish - cotton mills in New England.
Labour force being conscripted slowed down industrial and agricultural workforce’s.
War reduced immigration by 1.3 million, this and military deaths meant the population reduced 5.6%.
Economic growth in 1860s was slowest in any other decade in the 19th century - but the economy still grew


Union advantages

Union had an established army and a population of 22 million and an army of 2.1 million. Compared to the confederate with a population of 9 million and army of 900,000.
Gunboats allowed the union to control rivers. By 1862 the union controlled the Mississippi River, except the 150 mike stretch near Vicksburg.
End of December 1861 the union has 260 shops and another 100 under construction. The confederate only had 40 at its height.
Naval blockade of the union cut confederate trade to a 1/3 of pre war levels.
The union had 6 times as many factories and 10 times the industrial capacity and 2 times the amount of railway track.


Opposition in the union

Many democrats wanted peace with the confederacy and were critical of republican policies during the war. Republicans labelled these copperheads.
Radical republicans believed their membership was huge but pro confederate northerners were in a minority.
Republicans argued some politicians belonged to pro southern groups such as the knights of the golden circle and sons of Liberty.
However dissent of democrats short lived as by 1863 the union were winning


Opposition in the union
Clement vallandigham

He was a leading peace democrat from the union.
1863 hopes of being elected governor and encouraged soldiers to desert the union and he denounced the war.
May 1863 in command of general Burnside he was arrested and found guilty of treason.
Democrats and some republicans were appalled by this and Lincoln decided to release him from prison and banish him to the confederacy but he went to Canada.
He still campaigned for governor of Ohio but he lost support after more victories in 1863.


Opposition in the union
New York draft riots

Occurs due to the conscription act March 1863.and it meant all men aged 20-45 could be enrolled in the army, however if paid $300 or found a substitute you were exempt.
This happened in July 1863 when New York governor Horatio Seymour stirred up opposition to the draft. A mob of mostly Irish catholics attacked the recruiting station and then targeted free blacks. This event posed a threat to Lincoln’s presidency and he sent 20,000 troops to settle it.
120 people died as rioters were shot by troops.