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Flashcards in Class 1 Deck (48):
1

Functions of Cardiovascular System

1. Transport Essential substances to the tissues

2. Remove by-products

3. Regulation of body temperature

4. Humoral communication throughout body

5. Adjustments of O2 and nutrient supply in different physiologic states

2

Why is the Heat considered 2 Pumps

Right Ventricle is for Pulmonary Circulation

Left Ventricle is for Systemic Circulation

3

Right Ventricle

Carries oxygen poor blood to lungs, where it unloads CO2 and picks up O2. Then it delivers O2 rich blood to the heart.

4

Left Ventricle

Delivers O2 rich blood to every part of the body.

5

Tricuspid Valves

It an atrioventricular (AV) valve.

Causes unidirectional flow from the right atrium to the right ventricle.

6

Pulmonary Semilunar Valve

Causes Unidirectional flow from RV to the pulmonary artery.

7

Mitral/Bicuspid Valve

AV valve

Causes Unidirectional flow of blood from the Left Atrium to the Left Ventricle.

8

Aortic Semilunar Valve

Causes Unidirectional flow from the LV to the aorta.

9

What part of circulation distributes blood to the tissues?

Systemic Circulation Carries oxygenated blood through the ARTERIES to the tissues.

10

What part of the circulation contains the majority of the total blood volume?

Veins

11

The greatest resistance to blood flow occurs in what part of the circulation?

Arterioles

12

What is the function of the Capillaries?

They are the primary exchange vessel in the body!

They are composed of only endothelial cells.

They have the greatest surface area for exchange.

O2, CO2, H2O, electrolytes, proteins, metabolic substrates and by-products and circulating hormones are exchanged across endothelium between plasma and tissue interstitum.

13

Blood flow in capillaries is

Non-pulsatile

14

As the cross-sectional area of a vascular bed increases

The velocity of blood flow decreases. It is inversely related.

15

What contributes to the optimal conditions for capillary function?

Slow blood flow velocity

16

What is the control of blood flow related to in the majority of the tissue beds in the body?

The blood flow to to the majority of tissue beds in the body is controlled in relation to the tissue needs.

17

Describe the boundaries of the mediastinum

The anatomical region located between the lungs from sternum to vertebral column and diaphragm to thoracic outlet.


Between the eternal angle and the inferior border of T4 vertebral body.

Thoracic inlet T4-T12 diaphragm to thoracic outlet

18

What part of the mediastinum is the heart located?

Middle part of the inferior mediastinum

19

Name the different layers of the pericardium

Visceral pericardium is in contact with the heart. It’s the inner most wall.

Pericardial cavity

Parietal pericardium

Fibrous is the outer layer

20

Which nerve travels across the pericardium to the diaphragm?

Phrenic Nerves

21

Which nerve roots does the phrenic nerves originate?

C3-C5 in the neck

22

What is the sympathetic innervation to the heart?

T1-T4

Cardiac accelerators

Stellate ganglia (cervicothoracic ganglia) and middle cervical ganglia

If fight or flight they increase HR and Contractility

SA, AV nodes and ventricle

23

What is the parasympathetic innervation to the heart?

T1-T4

Much innervation to SA and AV nodes

Little innervation to ventricles

originates in the medulla oblongata

Vagus nerves


Can only decrease contractility by 30%

24

What are the different parts of the conduction system?

Sinoatrial Node SA Node
-Interatrial conduction pathways (SA to LA)
-Internodal conduction pathways (SA to AV)


Atrioventricular Node
-Bundle of His

Bundle Branches
-Left bundle Branch
~Left anterior division
~ Left posterior division
-Right Bundle Branch

25

What structures are part of the right atrium?

Superior and Inferior Vena Cava
~Eustachian valve

Crista terminal is (divides the right atrium)
- right atrial appendage (right auricle)trabeculated
-smooth portion of atrium around vena cava

26

What is the coronary sinus?

A wide venous channel that receives blood from the coronary veins. And empties into the right atrium.

Venous drainage of the heart

27

What does the coronary sinus drain into?

Empties into the right atrium

28

Describe the tricuspid valve apparatus?

Separates right atrium from right ventricle




It is made up of 3 leaflets The annulus, the supporting chordae tendineae and the papillary muscle.

Anterior leaflet
Posterior leaflet
Septal leaflet

29

Right ventricle in cross-section is

Crescent shaped and thin.

30

Right ventricle compare thickness to left ventricle.

Right ventricle is thin compared to Left Ventricle.

31

What portion of the ventricle is common to both the RV and LV?

The septum

32

Describe the shape of the left ventricle in cross-section.

Circular

33

How many pulmonary veins are normally present?

4

34

What cardiac chamber do the pulmonary veins drain into?

Left atrium

35

Is pulmonary vein blood oxygenated or deoxygenated?

Oxygenated blood to you heart.

36

Where will blood clots form in the setting of atrial fibrillation?

Left atrial appendage

37

What is the function of papillary muscles?

During systole they contract to prevent inversion or prolapse of the mitral and tricuspid valves during systole.

38

Mitral and Tricuspid Valves

Have associated papillary muscles

39

How many leaflets are found in a normal aortic valve?

3 leaflets

40

Where are the origins of the coronary arteries in relationships to the aortic valve?

Right and Left Main Coronary Arteries originate from the Sinuses of Valsalva (dilatations of the ascending aorta that occurs just above the aortic valve.


Sino-tubular junction

41

How many leaflets are found in the Mitral Valve

2 leaflets

42

How many leaflets are found in the pulmonic valve?

3 leaflets

43

4 Heart Valves

Tricuspid between RA and RV

Pulmonary between RV and Pulmonary artery

Mital between LA and LV

Aortic LV and aorta

44

Main Branches of the Coronary Arteries

Right Coronary
-In 85% of ppl the RCA supplies the Posterior descending artery

Left Coronary
-Left Main bifurcated to form:
~ Left anterior descending
-diagonal branches
~Left Circumflex
- Obtuse marginal

45

Ramus Intermedius

37% of ppl have an additional branch there is a tri-furcation of the Left Main

46

What determines dominance in regard to the coronary arteries?

Which ever vessel that gives rise to the posterior descending artery

47

What supplies the LV

LAD- left anterior descending supplies the front and bottom LV

Circumflex- side and back of LV

RCA- bottom of LV

48

Right atrium pressure

Right atrium has low pressure 0-5 and the right ventricle 10-20 . Deoxygenated blood flows into the RA.