Class #10 Flashcards Preview

Pathophysiology > Class #10 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Class #10 Deck (99):
1

What are the 4 somatosensory modalities?

1. Tactile (mechanoreception)
2. Thermal
(Thermoception)
3. Position
(proprioception)
4. Pain
(nociception)

2

Explain mechanoreception

The sensation of pressure/vibration. You will often feel the initial response, but will experience total adaptation over time. For example, feel your shirt going on, but then forget about it

3

Explain thermoception

The sensation of heat. Often you will experience an initial response, and then have partial adaptation. For example, the hot tub is really hot at first and then you will adapt

4

What is proprioception?

The send of limb/body movement in space without using vision

5

What is nociception?

The sensation of pain

6

Define pain

Unpleasant sensory and emotional sensation associated with actual and potential tissue damage

7

What are the 3 benefits of pain?

1. Warns of impending injury
2. Motivates seeking help
3. Motivates to avoid future injury

8

Explain the 3 pathways that transmit somatosensory information

1. A--> large myelinated fibers, fastest rate of conduction, convey cutaneous pressure, touch, cold/heat, and mechanical pain

2. B--> Large, myelinated fibers, transmit information from cutaneous and subcutaneous mechanoreceptors

2. C--> "slow pain"
-small, non-myelinated fibers
-Warm/hot, mechanical/chemical/
heat/cold induced pain

9

Explain the 3 levels of neurone involved in somatic sensation

1. first order
-detect the sensation from sensory receptors to dorsal horn neurons

2. second-order
-occurs in the spinal cord, transmits the information to the thalamus

3, third order
-transmits information from the thalamus to the sensory cortex

10

How is the somatosensory component of the nervous system different than the specialized senses?

it provides an awareness of the body's deep and superficial parts as opposed to awareness of the external world

11

What are the 3 types of sensory neurons present in the somatosensory system?

1. General somatic afferent
-pain, touch, temperature

2. Special somatic afferent
-located in muscles, tendons and joints

3. General visceral afferent
-located on visceral structures that sense fullness and discomfort

12

What is a dermatome?

The region of the body wall that is supplied by a single pair of dorsal root ganglia

13

If your patient loses one dorsal root or root ganglion, will they completely lose sensation in this area? Why or why not?

Reduced but not total loss of sensory innervation of a dermatome, because neighbouring dermatomes overlap one another sufficiently

14

The _____________ system is considered the basic somatosensory system

tactile

15

What are free nerve endings responsible for?

They are found in the skin and the cornea, and they detect touch and pressure

16

What are Meissner corpuscles responsible for?

found in non-hairy parts of the skin like the fingertips, lips and other areas where the sense of touch is highly developed. They are able to adapt in a fraction of a second.

17

How are Merkel disks different from Meissner corpuscles?

Merkel disks transmit an initial strong signal that diminishes in strength but is SLOW in adapting. They allow for continuous determination of touch against the skin

18

When you feel a light hair brushing against your lips, what kind of tactile receptor is likely informing you of this?

Meissner corpuscles, because they are extremely sensitive to light touch and low frequency

19

What type of specialized receptor is specialized for detecting tissue vibration?

pacinian corpuscle immediately beneath the skin and deep in the fascial tissues

20

Explain the specificity theory

Considers pain to be a separate modality evoked by the activity of specific receptors (nociceptors) that transmit information to pain centres in the brain

21

How does the pattern theory explain pain?

Pain receptors share pathways and/or nerve endings with other sensory modalities. For example, light touch may not cause pain, but heavy touch of the same area may cause pain

22

Explain the gate control theory of pain

claims that there are neural gate mechanisms in the spinal cord that can block info from going to the brain by, for example, involving fibers that sense touch

23

What is the neuromatrix theory of pain?

a multifactoral theory of pain that claims that the brain a widely distributed neural network that contains genetic, cognitive and sensory influences. This theory helps explain phantom limb pain and chronic pain

24

Define pain threshold

The point at which a nociceptive stimulus is perceived as painful. This threshold is uniform from person to person

25

Define pain tolerance?

Maximum intensity or duration of pain a person is willing or able to endure. This is variable from person to person, depending on psychological, familial, cultural, and environmental factors

26

What is acute pain? Explain the early wave and the secondary wave.

Short-lasting pain that ceases when the cause is removed.
EARLY: hyper excites the neuron
SECONDARY: the longer lasting re-percussions of the acute injury, including the inflammatory reaction to the tissue injury

27

What are the 4 types of chronic pain?

1. Highly variable
-not "usual" pain characteristics
2. Peripheral
-musculoskeletal, organ, vascular
3. Peripheral-central
-neuralgias, phantom limb pain
4. Central
-CNS disease or injury

28

What are the possible negative consequences of chronic pain?

1. Psysiological
-loss of appetite, sleep disorders
2. Psychological
-depression
3. Familial
4. Economic

29

What is the difference between cutaneous pain and deep somatic pain?

CUTANEOUS
-arises from skin, cutaneous tissues
-localized
sharp, burning
DEEP SOMATIC
-from deep structures like muscles, tendons, joints, and blood vessels
-difuse, radiating pain

30

What causes visceral pain?

activation of nociceptors of thoracic, pelvic or abdominal viscera.
-extremely sensitive to distension, ischemia and inflammation (diseases)
-Relatively insensitive to cutting/burning

31

How does visceral pain present in a patient?

-diffuse
-often referred
-deep, squeezing, sickening
-nausea, vomitting, emotional

32

What is referred pain? Why does this happen?

pain/injury originating in the viscera that is experienced as pain more near the body's surface

-visceral and peripheral neurons converge
-structures develop nearby as embryo
**LOOK THIS UP**

33

Define analgesia

Absence of pain

34

What is Hyperalgesia

increased sensitivity to pain

35

If someone has a decreased sensitivity to pain, what is this called?

hypoalgesia

36

What is hyperpathia?

unpleasant, prolonged response to pain that appears as an explosive overreaction to pain

37

Define hyperesthesia

Abnormal increase in sensitivity to sensation

38

What is Hypoesthesia?

Abnormal decrease in sensitivity to sensation

39

Define paresthesia

Abnormal touch sensation without external stimuli; tingling, pins and needles

40

What is Allodynia?

Pain produced by stimuli that does not normally cause pain
Ex: tapping on the shoulder causes pain

41

What causes neuropathic pain?

-pressure on the nerve
-physical/chemical injury to neuron
-infection/ischemia or inflammation of neuron

42

What is the difference between the causes of focal and global neuropathic pain

FOCAL
-trauma/disease of specific neuron
GLOBAL
-endocrine disease (diabetes), neurotoxic meds, chronic alcoholism

43

List 4 qualities explaining neuropathic pain

-unexplainable
-occurring without provocation
-widespread pain
-sensory deficits
-burning/stabbing pain

44

Neuropathic pain that occurs after shingles is called ___________

post-herpetic neuralgia

45

Severe, brief, repetitive attacks of lightening-like, throbbing pain along a spinal or cranial nerve are called ____________

Neuralgias

46

What can precipitate neuralgias?

stimulation of a cutaneous region supplied by nerve

47

Describe trigeminal neuralgia

the most common type of neuralgia, that causes facial tics and spasms. It is possible caused by trigeminal nerve damage

48

What 4 things trigger trigeminal neuralgia?

-light touch
-movements
-drafts
-eating

49

What virus causes shingles?

varicella-zoster virus

50

What triggers post-herpetic neuralgia?

-light touch
-cold wind
-clothing

51

What is Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS)?

a RARE, autonomic and vasomotor instability that causes an individual to be more sensitive about an injury than that injury warrants

52

How can I expect my patient with CRPS to present?

- pain that begins with one limb, then expands
- severe pain or hyperalgesia
-edema, blood flow changes
-abnormal sensorimotor activity

53

What is the difference between CRPS I and CRPS II?

CRPS I-- occurs when there is no definable injury (allodynia)
CRPS II- hyperalgesia AFTER an injury

54

What can trigger a secondary headache?

-disturbed sleep
-over-exertion

55

How long does a migraine headache usually last?

1-2 days

56

If I have a migraine headache, how would I describe it?

-Unilateral, pulsating, throbbing pain
-made worse by physical activity
-nausea/vomiting
-light/sound sensitivity
-visual hallucinations (sparks, flashes)

57

Explain the "aura" that occasionally accompanies migraine headaches

*Pre-symptom to migraine
-develops over 5-20 mins, lasts up to one hour
-flickering lights, loss of vision
-pins/needles
-numbness
-speech disturbances

58

What is the criteria for a "chronic migraine"?

Experience a migraine headache 15+ days per month x 3 months

59

What is a retinal migraine?

a rare type of recurrent migraine headache that causes scintillations, scotomata, and blindness in one eye
*REVERSIBLE SYMPTOMS

60

Define a "transformed migraine"

similar to a tension or sinus headache that probably occurs d/t parasympathetic activation

61

List the symptoms that accompany childhood periodic syndrome migraines.

3 of the following:
-family history
-aura
-throbbing headache
-abdominal pain
-nausea/vomiting
-unilateral location
-relief with sleep

62

Migraines are most often associated with activation of which cranial nerve?

Trigeminal nerve

63

What hormone is though to be related to the development of migraine headaches?

Estrogen

64

Name 3 possible dietary triggers for migraine headaches

-MSG
-Cheese
-Chocolate

65

What part of the brain is thought to be associated with cluster headaches?

-Trigeminal nerve and ANS
-hypothalamus

66

Who are most likely to experience cluster headache?

-Men
-30-70 years old

67

What is the most common area to experience a cluster headache?

ORBITAL, around or behind the eyes, can radiate to the temples, cheeks and gums

68

How might my patient with a cluster headache explain his pain?

-rapid onset lasting 15-180 mins
-severe, constant, unilateral

69

What secondary symptoms may my patient with a cluster headache exhibit?

-restlessness/agitation
-conjunctival redness/lacrimation
-nasal congestion/rhinorrhea
-facial sweating
-eyelid edema, ptosis

70

What type of headache is associated with oromandibular dysfunction?

Tension-type headache

71

Tension-type headaches are associated with….

-scalp/neck muscle tension
-oromandibular dysfunction
-stress, anxiety, depression

72

What 2 things cause tempomandibular joint pain?

1. Imbalanced joint movement (poor bite, bruxism (grinding teeth), inflammation, trauma, degeneration)
2. Pain (facial, head, neck, ear)

73

Do children respond to nociceptive stimuli as neonates?

YES. They have been proven to demonstrate pain memory as infants. They are reliable reporters of pain at a young age

74

What are the 3 most common types of pain in the older adult?

-musculoskeletal
-rheumatologic
-neurologic

75

Unrelieved pain in the older adult can lead to…...

-gait disturbances
-muscle wasting
-impaired apetite
-sleep disturbances
-decreased cognition
-economic impact

76

What are Cannon's 4 features of homeostasis?
*LOOK THIS UP*

1. Mechanisms to maintain constancy
2. Change from "steady-state" causes a response
3. Response is multifactorial & cooperative, simultaneous or successive
4. Organized self government

77

Controllable periods of stress that contribute to emotional and intellectual growth are known as _______________

Eustress

78

What is Allostasis? Why is this valuable?

Interactive physiologic changes in neuroendocrine, autonomic and immune systems in response to real or perceived challenges/threats to homeostasis
*Increases chance of survival

79

What is the difference between an endogenous stressor and an exogenous stressor?

ENDO: within the body
EXO: outside the body

80

A person's response to stress is dependent upon….

1. Properties of the stressor
2. Condition of the person being stressed
INTERNAL (genetic, age, gender)
EXTERNAL (environment, exposure, experience, diet, social support)

81

Define General Adaptation Syndrome

-general systemic reaction in response to a stressor resulting in physical manifestations coordinated and dependent on each other

82

Explain the 3 stages of General Adaptation Syndrome
*LOOK THIS UP*

ALARM STAGE
-sns and hpa axis stimulation
-catecholamines and cortisol released
RESISTANCE STAGE
-body responds and adapts
-cortisol levels drop
EXHAUSTION STAGE
-resources are depleted
*Damage to systems if prolonged

83

Which neurohormone involved in the stress response is responsible for potent vasoconstriction?

Angiotensin II

84

What is the role of Aldosterone in the stress response?

increase energy and glucose stores

85

What is cortisol responsible for?

-potentiates epinephrine and glucagon
-decreases non-essential energy-using activities, like metabolic rate, reproduction, osteoblasts, RBC/WBC production, immune system

86

Expain the "fight or flight" responses role in modulating blood pressure in an emergency

*Rapid response to emergency and trauma
1. Pain, fear, low BP
2. Hypothalamus activates the SNS, which activate norepinephrine
3. adrenal medulla releases epinephrine into the blood
4. Bind to adrenergic receptors in the HEART, and cause increased HR and strength, which increases BP
5. Bind to adrenergic receptors in the BLOOD VESSELS to cause vasoconstriction in the skin, guts and kidneys, which increases BP

87

How is cortisol released into the blood stream?

1. Hypothalamus releases corticotropin releasing hormone
2. Which stimulates the anterior pituitary glad to release ACTH
3. Which stimulates the adrenal cortex to release CORTISOL

88

What occurs in the immune system of someone undergoing extreme stress?

-decreased immune cell production
-decreased thymus activity (fewer T-lymphocytes)
-inflammatory mediators and cytokines are released, which interfere with brain activity

89

What factors affect an individuals ability to adapt to a stressful situation?

1. Physiologic reserve
-ability of body systems to increase their function to react to stress, change in homeostasis
2. Anatomic Reserve
-paired organs
- Time available
-age, gender
-health status
-sleep-wake cycles

90

Define hardiness

the ability to conceptualize stressors as a challenge rather than a threat

91

How does acute stress affect the ANS?

arousal, alertness, vigilance, cognition, focus, aggression. This can be an issue if an individual has pre-existing health problem that causes the ANS to be "pushed", like heart failure

92

When might a chronic stress response occur?

-when a component of the system fails
-original stimulus is prolonged, and the individual ability to adapt has been exhausted

93

Does a chronic stress response result in over-reaction or under-reaction to stress?

either or, different for each person

94

What manifestations may accompany a chronic stress response?

- necrotizing gingivitis
- herpes simplex
- Rhinovirus
- exacerbation of any disease process

95

Why does PTSD occur?

a traumatic event causes chronic activation of the stress response

96

Explain the pathophysiology of PTSD
*LOOK THIS UP*

-increased catecholamines and thyroid hormones
- decreased cortisol

97

Explain the PTSD triad

1. Intrusion
-flashbacks/nightmares
2. Avoidance
-emotional numbing
-depression
-survival guilt
3. Hyperarousal
-irritability/anxiety/insomnia
-exaggerated startle reflex
-difficulty concentration
-memory problems
-overly cautious

98

PTSD increases the risk for….

-depression
-panic disorders
-anxiety
-substance abuse
-physical illness

99

What are the treatment options for a patient experiencing PTSD?

*avoid poor coping mechanisms, provide health stress-reducing strategies
-relaxation
-imagery
-music
-massage
-biofeedback