Class #2 Flashcards Preview

Pathophysiology > Class #2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Class #2 Deck (35):
1

What is pericarditis?

Inflammation of the pericardium around the heart, usually as a result of a virus or a bacteria, or blunt trauma. Inflammation increases capillary permeability, which causes the influx or more inflammatory chemicals to the area.

2

How would pericarditis present in my patient?

-decreased cardiac output
-pericardial friction rub--super painful!
-ECG changes

3

Explain the pain associated with pericarditis

-precordial, doesn't radiate
-abrupt onset
-sharp pain
-scapula pain
-increased pain with deep breath and cough
-relief when leaning forward

4

What is Dressler Syndrome?

chest pain post heart-attack after hospital treatment

5

What is a pericardial effusion?

accumulation of fluid in the pericardial space, caused by inflammation of the pericardium, infection, neoplasms, cardiac surgery, and trauma

6

What is the worst case scenario of fluid building up in the pericardial sac?

Cardiac Tamponade. This occurs when enough blood or other fluid has built up in the pericardial sac that it compresses the heart, which may prevent it from pumping effectively.

7

What can cause Cardiac Tamponade?

-Blunt trauma (MVA)
-Myocardial rupture post MI
-Cardiac surgery
-Aortic dissection

8

If I suspect that my patient is experiencing cardiac tamponade, how might they present to me?

It depends on the amound and the rapidity, but ultimately the compression limits stroke volume and cardiac output, which leads to low systolic blood pressure. You would see:
-chest pain and tachycardia, muffled heart sounds
- dyspnea and tachypnea
-change in mentation.
-elevated jugular venous pressure
-circulatory shock

9

How is Cardiac Tamponade diagnosed?

-Pulsus paradoxus
-ECG (would indicate decreased conductivity)
-Echocardiogram
-CT, MRI

10

How is cardiac Tamponade treated?

immediate pericardiocentasis

11

What is pulsus paradoxus?

a drop in systemic arterial pressure of greater than 10 mmHg on inspiration

12

LOOK UP CORONARY ARTERY CHART IN NOTES

LOOK AT IT NOW!

13

What 3 things assist coronary artery flow?

1. Endothelial cells lining the arteries
2. Diastolic pressure in the aorta
3. Time in Diastole

14

What can you teach your patients if they want to reduce their risk for CAD?

Teach them the modifiable risks for the disease:
-HTN
-Hyperlipidemia
-Tobacco use
-Diabetes
-Obesity
-sedentary lifestyle
-ability to cope with stress

15

What are the non-modifiable risks for CAD?

-post-menopausal women are more at risk
-age
-ethnicity
-genetics/family history

16

Your patient comes into the emergency room complaining of chest pain, afraid that he might be having a heart attack. It turns out that he is experiencing stable angina. How can you explain this condition to him? What are the common manifestations?

-benign chest pain d/t lack of oxygen, often with exercise, exertion, cold temperatures, or high emotions
-Often a FIXED coronary narrowing
-normally substernal pain, occasionally radiates
-may experience epigastric discomfort

17

If your patient experiences stable angina again in the future, how can he relieve the pain?

Rest and nitroglycerine (if prescribed by dr)

18

What is the difference between stable angina and variant angina?

stable angina occurs with fixed coronary narrowing, but variant angina occurs d/t spasms of the coronary artery

19

Why are silent MI's more likely in the elderly?

-Less myocardium involved, which decreases intensity of pain
-neuropathy, which leads to decreased sensitivity
-hypotension, which leads to vauge discomfort, mild diaphoresis, occasional stroke-like symptoms

20

What are the potential causes of Acute Coronary Syndrome?

-Unstable plaque rupturing to form a clot
-coronary vasospasm
-atherosclerotic narrowing
-Inflammation/Infection
SECONDARY CAUSES
-anemia, fever, hypoxemia, surgery

21

What is unstable angina?

[NSTEMI]
-with pre-diagnosis of "stable angina"
-occurs at rest, which is different from stable angina, which occurs with exertion

22

I might suspect my patient may be having an ST Elevation MI if he is exhibiting what specific symptoms?

-crushing/constricting pain or pressure
-substernal with radiation to the L arm and jaw
-epigastric distress/nausea
-palpitations
-cool, clammy skin
-Shortness of breath
-Anxiety

23

How long does it take for cell death to occur in an MI?

15-20 mins-- Early perfusion and revascularization can prevent necrosis! ACT QUICK!

24

Myocardial ischemia and necrosis result in...

1. Decreased contractile force
-decreased CO
-decreased coronary artery perfusion
-increased pulmonary vasculature pressure
2. Interruption of conduction
-dysrhythmias

25

LOOK AT THE CHART ABOUT THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MI IN MEN AND WOMEN

LOOK AT IT NOW

26

True or false?
Men experience more more complications related to heart attacks and heart surgery than women do

FALSE
Men have larger vessels than women do, and therefore there is more "grace space". Women experience complications more often because their vessels are typically smaller and narrower

27

What are the 3 most common diagnostic tests to determine whether or not a patient has had an MI?

1. Troponin
-enzyme released specific to heart muscle. 2-3 hrs after damage has occurred to the heart muscle, remains for 7-10 days
2. Myoglobin
-protein released from skeletal muscle damage that rises within 1 hr of the event and peaks at 4 hrs
3. Creatine Kinase MB
-Specific to cardiac muscle, rises in 4-6 hrs gone in 2-3 days

28

LOOK AT CHART COMPARING ANGINAS

SERIOUSLY, STUDY IT NOW!

29

If lab results indicate a significant rise in troponin in your patient, you can suspect they have experienced a heart attack. What is the appropriate acute treatment for an MI?

-apply oxygen to increase perfusion
-pain relief
-reperfusion-fibrionolytics
-Percutaneous transluminal coronary
angioplasty (Blow job)
-Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) in an attempt to bypass the clogged up area of the blood vessel

30

What is the most common cause of death in a patient who has experienced an MI?

Fatal arrythmias

31

What is the leading cause of sudden cardiac death in young adults? Explain the physiology of this condition

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM)
Unexplained genetic ventricular septal thickening.
-poor diastolic filling
-Left ventricle outflow obstruction
-left ventricular hypertrophy
-disruption of normal conduction pathways

32

What are the manifestations of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy?

HCM causes decreased stroke volume d/t impaired diastolic filling. This causes:
-dyspnea
-chest pain
-syncope past exertion
-atrial fibrillation
-lethal ventricular arrhythmias

33

What is endocarditis?

any infection of the INNER lining of the heart, mostly affects the mitral & aortic valves

34

What puts an individual at risk for endocarditis?

-infection elsewhere
-dental surgery
-IV drugs
-immunodeficiency
-valve prolapse

35

You have just arrived on the medical unit for the start of your shift. One of your patients is a new-admit diagnosed with endocarditis. What symptoms might you expect to see? What potential complications do you want to be aware of?

-Signs and symptoms of systemic infection
-changes in heart sounds
-symptoms related to embolism
COMPLICATIONS:
-emboli (lung, renal, brain)
-valve dysfunction
-arrhythmias