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Neurology

study of anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the nervous system

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Anatomy

study of structure

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Physiology

study of function or structures in motion

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Pathology

study of disease processes that affect both anatomy and physiology

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Neurophysiology

how a neuron functions

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Nervous system

a series of organs that make communication between the brain and body possible

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Neurological disorder

a disease in the nervous system that impairs a person’s health, resulting in some level of disability

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Dorsal Induction

- G.A. 3-7 weeks
- 3rd week: Period when neural plate is formed
- 4th week: neural plate wraps around to form the neural tube (process called neurulation)
- 6th week: ends of neural tube close
- Brain and spinal cord with develop out of the neural tube

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Neural Tube Defects

involve failure of neural tube ends to close

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Encephalocele

when a part of the brain protrudes from the skull

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Anencephaly

- brain development ceases at brainstem; child without cerebral hemispheres
- children who are born with this can live, but most die in the early months or first year of life

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Spina bifida

- cyst on back that may or may not involve the spinal cord
- sometimes the spinal cord is in tact, but a severe form is when the spinal cord gets wrapped up in the cyst
- children with the severe form can suffer from paralysis in their lower half and struggle with bowel and bladder control
- look up if it can be operated on in utero
- 3 levels: 1) occulta, 2) meningocele, 3) myelomenigocele

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Caudal Regression Syndrome

- abnormal fetal development of lower spine
- hypoplasia-- not fully developed --> have hypoplasia of the lower half of the body
- can be missing ribs, vertebrae, hypo plastic pelvis, legs have little control or never developed (extreme case)

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Ventral Induction

- G.A. 2-3 months
- Neurodevelopment period when face and brain develop out of superior end of the neural tube

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Holoprosencephaly

- failure of brain cleavage
- the brain does not divide into left and right hemispheres
- sometimes a cleft lip come with this
- cyclopsia is another thing that can happen where a child will have one eye in the middle of their head

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Alobar form of holoprosencephaly

- no cleavage at all resulting in no distinct cerebral hemispheres
- no corpus callous
- most severe form

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Semilobar form of holoprosencephaly

- some cleavage and developmental of right and left hemispheres, but incomplete
- no corpus callosum

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Lobar form of holoprosencephaly

- least severe
- brain looks normal, but abnormal connections between hemispheres

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Neural Proliferation

- G.A. 3-4 months

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Neurogenesis

- the birth of new neurons
- New neurons become the gray and white matter of the cerebral hemispheres
- born out of spinal cord and brain stem
- interruptions in neural proliferation may result in microcephaly where children have abnormally small heads and brains--> usually is accompanied by intellectual disabilities

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Neuronal Migration

- G.A. 3-5 months
- new neurons move in wave-like fashion to their correct position in the cerebral hemispheres
- a chemical called reeling signals neurons where to stop
- at about 20 weeks GA, process stops and 6 layers of the cerebral cortex are established

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6 layers of cerebral cortex

1) Molecular (lamina I)
2) External granular (lamina II)
3) External pyramidal (lamina III)
4) Internal granular (lamina IV)
5) Internal pyramidal (lamina V)
6) Multiform (lamina VI)

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Schizencephaly

- clefts in the cerebral hemispheres
- hole in the brain
- may or may not have significant deficits because baby brains are fairly plastic and can learn to compensate
- due to lack of reelin leading to a failure of neurons to migrate to proper places

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Lissencephaly

- smooth brain that lacks characteristic sulci and gyri
- usually has significant intellectual disabilities
- due to lack of reelin leading to a failure of neurons to migrate to proper places

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Cortical Organization and synapse formation

- G.A. 5 months to years
- once neurons arrive at intended spot, they sprout dendrites and axons
- synapses (connection points) begin to form between neurons
- Process known as snaptogenesis
- synaptic pruning eliminates unneeded connections
- failure in this stage can lead to polymicrogyria--> too many gyri in the cerebral hemispheres

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Myelination

- G.A. birth to years after birth
- myelin is a fatty coating on axons that keeps the electrical signal of the neurons in the neuron so that the electric signals can be more efficient
- process reaches its peak at about one year after birth
- infants gain greater control of their bodies and begin to develop the ability to communicate verbally
- failure in this stage may result in hypomyelination, a reduced ability to form myelin resulting in intellectual disability

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Multipolar Neurons

- Motor neuron
- Pyramidal neuron
- Prukinje cell --> found in cerebellum

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Bipolar Neurons

- Retinal neuron
- Olfactory Neuron
- Afferent communication

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Unipolar Neruon

- found with pain and touch

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Anaxonic Neuron

- inhibitor in the nervous system