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Flashcards in class inequality Deck (10):

The Hope-Goldthorpe Classification

Goldthorpe developed the Hope–Goldthorpe scale He distinguished three main classes, which could be further sub-divided into seven occupational classes:
higher professionals
lower professionals
routine non manual workers
small proprietors and self employed artisans
lower grade technicians and supervisors of manual workers
skilled manual workers
semi skilled and unskilled manual workers



Pay rarely corresponds with labour shortages, people in upper-middle class occupations often fix their own salaries, and supplement them with other incentives!


The Gini Coefficient

Measures inequality - between 0, where everybody is equal, and 1, where all the country's income is earned by a single person
In 2012-13, the UK's Gini score for income inequality was 0.332
Out of 30 countries, the UK is the seventh most unequal, and within this data set it is the fourth most unequal in Europe (Luxembourg Income Study)


The High Pay centre (2012)

The total pay of chief executives of the 100 largest companies on the London Stock Exchange had risen by 49 per cent during the previous year, compared with average increases of less than 3 per cent for their employees


Bordieu and Passeron

Schools are middle class institutions run by the middle class, working class and ethnic minority children may lack knowledge of the values, ways if interacting etc. that middle class children have
so do not have the same chances to succeed



‘learning to labour’ - working class boys didn’t care about education as (due to their working class culture) they just wanted to leave and start work – this meant they didn’t do well at school and lacked the qualifications to do anything other than manual work – meaning they never broke out of their class



studied civil servants and found low control in the workplace led to stress and illness (coronary tests e.g. blood pressure). Those with low control are those lower down the hierarchy



strong socio-economic link to almost all patterns of disease and ill health. Poorer areas and jobs also have more hazards



Crime has a high incidence in the lower socio-economic class and a low incidence in the upper socio-economic class


Cavadino and Dignan

somehow between the commission of offences and the official responses of prosecution and punishment, the difference between the classes gets vastly magnified