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Flashcards in Class Presentations Deck (35):
1

Why do hearing aid users experience greater cognitive demands in their attempts to understand spoken language?

Hearing aids can introduce distortions or unwanted artifacts that require users to engage in more explicit processing

2

What is a directional microphone and what does it do?

Distinguishes b/t speech in FRONT of the listener and noise BEHIND the listener, reducing volume of background noise

3

True or False:
The "dynamic range" is the same for people with hearing loss and w/ normal hearing. Why?

False! The dynamic range is the range of intensities b/t the softest sound you can hear and the loudest sound you can tolerate.
If hearing loss, the dynamic range is smaller and more limited, can't hear the softest sounds that normal listeners can, but loud sounds are perceived normally or louder

4

What is the different b/t linear and non-linear amplification & which is better for a hearing aid?

Linear - incoming sounds always amplified by a consistent amount no matter the intensity of the incoming sound
Non-linear - Incoming sounds amplified by differing amounts (softer incoming sounds amplified greater than louder incoming sounds)
*Non-linear usually preferred (some aids switch depending on background noise)

5

What does loudness growth matter for SLPs?

Spend more time w/ people with hearing aids after they have been fitted
People with hearing loss may not wear hearing aids b/c sounds are "too loud"
Want them to participate in life, find barriers to hearing aid use

6

3 Types of Otitis Media

Acute OM
OM w/ Effusion
Chronic Suppurative OM

7

Why is OM incidence higher in children?

Short, horizontal floppy eustachian tubes

8

What is the most common approach to Acute OM management w/out complications?

Pain management
Watchful waiting

9

Why does sound processed though a cochlear implant sound different than normal hearing?

Normal hearing uses 15,000 hair cells, CI uses 22 electrodes
Parts of the sound wave are not coded into the signal to the auditory nerve b/c the electrodes are not able to stimulate as specifically

10

Cochlear implants bypass __________ by directly stimulating the _________ to create sound

Inner ear
Auditory Nerve

11

How is sound delivered to the cochlea via a cochlear implant?

1. Microphone picks up sound
2. Cord takes sound to processor which filters, amplifies and digitizes sound into digital coded signals
3. Coded signals go through transmitting coil which sends the signals to an implanted FM radio signal
4. Receiver delivers appropriate amount of electrical pulses to electrodes (implanted in inner ear)

12

Not candidates for CI

Adult who may benefit from hearing aid
Adult with moderate unilateral conductive hearing loss

13

3 Variables that influence speech, language & hearing outcomes of CI

-time elapsed b/t HL and CI implantation
-residual hearing
-lip reading skills
-age of implantation
-time w/ CI
-speech & language skills
-motivation

14

How are SLPs involved w/ CIs?

Part of team that makes candidacy decision
Part of team facilitating aural rehabilitation

15

T/F: Ototoxic drugs always affect the cochlea

False

16

Determinants of ototoxicity

Age
Dose
Administration route
Genetics
Drug type

17

Gentamicin (Garamycin) is an ototoxic drug prescribed for:

Bacterial infections that are encountered in healthcare settings

18

APD coexists with:

ADHD
SLI
Dyslexia

19

3 Topics of Contention surrounding APD

Large overlap with other diagnoses
How do we define it?
How do we diagnose it?
Is it a distinct entity?

20

Auditory processing disorder is defined as:

A disorder which affects how the CNS uses auditory information

21

What are the 2 types of tinnitus

Subjective & Objective

22

Tinnitus is defined as:

the perception of noise in the absence of auditory stimulation

23

How is tinnitus treated?

No treatment
Pharmaceuticals to manage associated conditions: depression, anxiety, sleep disorders
Behavioural management
Many different potential types, hard to have one form of management

24

Signs child may have noise-induced HL:

Asks for repetition
Misunderstands directions/instructions
Appears inattentive or withdrawn when they should be listening
Problems w/ certain sounds /s, th, f, sh, t, k/
Watch other children to see what they say and mimic it
Fatigued by the end of the day

25

Ways to reduce potential NIHL

Education
Ear plugs
Turn it down!
Move away from sound source

26

Occupational noise exposure limit in all provinces (except QC):

85 dB

27

2 tests used in newborn hearing screening programs:

Otoacoustic emissions
Automated auditory brainstem response tasks

28

If HL is identified prior to _______ of age, the child will have significantly better language development than if ID'd after.

6 months

29

Most common type of genetic hearing loss:

Nonsyndromic

30

3 types of genetic inheritance:

Autosomal recessive
Autosomal dominant
X-linked
Mitochondrial

31

Syndromic HL will be accompanied by other deficits such as:

Structural anomalies
Medical issues w/ organ systems

32

Vestibular schwannoma is also called __________________ and is usually malignant/benign(choose 1)

Acoustic/auditory neuroma
Benign

33

Gold standard test for IDing retrocochlear lesion:

MRI

34

3 Common Treatments for Auditory Neuromas

"Wait and see" approach
Microsurgery
Radiosurgery

35

3 Factors that affect the ability to perceive the speech signal?

Distance
Background noise
Reverberation