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1

The term "vitamers" refers to:
A. all of the vitamins that begin with the same letter
B. vitamins that are not amines
C. minerals that may behave like vitamins
D. closely-related compounds that have similar vitamin activity

D. closely-related compounds that have similar vitamin activity

2

When water-soluble vitamins are consumed in excess of body needs, generally the excess is:
A. stored in liver, bone, and adipose tissue.
B. not absorbed.
C. excreted in the feces.
D. excreted in the urine.

D. excreted in the urine.

3

A major function of B vitamins is to serve as:
A. electrolytes.
B. a source of energy.
C. a part of a coenzyme.
D. antibodies.

C. a part of a coenzyme.

4

Match the Dietary Reference Intake item with it's appropriate definition
RDA
EAR
UL

RDA - Meets requirements of 97% healthy people in specified age or gender group
EAR - thought to meet the needs of 50% of people in specified age or gender group
UL- highest level unlikely to cause adverse effects in almost all people

5

Food sources of B-vitamins that are in coenzyme forms, are phosphorylated, or are bound to proteins require digestion in order to release the free vitamin for absorption from the intestine.
A. True
B. False

A. True

6

Match the vitamin with the correct enzyme or coenzyme function.

Pantothenic acid
Thiamin
Niacin
Riboflavin

Pantothenate - Acyl carrier protein
Thiamin - TDP
Niacin - NADP/NADPH
Riboflavin - FMN/FMNH2

7

A thiamin deficiency disorder usually associated with alcoholism is known as:
A. Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome
B. Maple Syrup Urine Disease
C. Cirrhosis of the liver
D. Beriberi

A. Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome

8

The essential roles of thiamin in the body include (Indicate all of the correct answers):
A. Synthesis of pentoses and NADPH
B. Synthesis of coenzyme A
C. Energy transformation
D. Membrane and nerve conduction

A. Synthesis of pentoses and NADPH
C. Energy transformation
D. Membrane and nerve conduction

9

Which of the following is the best source of riboflavin?
A. Sunflower seeds
B. Meat
C. Milk and milk products
D. Fruits/vegetables

C. Milk and milk products

10

Which of the following is not a role of flavoproteins in intermediary metabolism?
A. Synthesis of pentoses and NADPH
B. Production of a folate coenzyme
C. Glutathione reduction
D. Beta-oxidation of fatty acids

A. Synthesis of pentoses and NADPH

11

Which of the following is not a role of NADPH?
A. Cholesterol and steroid hormone synthesis
B. Production of a folate coenzyme
C. Synthesis of precursors of DNA
D. Beta-oxidation of fatty acids

D. Beta-oxidation of fatty acids

12

Which of the following amino acids is a precursor to niacin?
A. Tryptophan
B. Phenylalanine
C. Leucine
D. Valine

A. Tryptophan

13

Side effects arising from using niacin in therapeutic amounts may include all of the following effects except one. Which one?
A. Elevated plasma glucose
B. Liver injury
C. Heartburn
D. Increased uric acid levels
E. Headaches
F. Increased blood pressure

F. Increased blood pressure

14

Large doses of vitamin B3 as nicotinamide (niacinamide) do not possess the hypocholesterolemic effects of nicotinic acid (niacin), but also do not appear to have as high a potential for toxicity.
A. True
B. False

A. True

15

Synthesis of coenzyme A starts with the phosphorylation of which vitamin?
A. thiamin
B. nicotinamide
C. pantothenic acid
D. biotin
E. riboflavin

C. pantothenic acid

16

The activity of erythrocyte glutathione reductase is useful for assessing the adequacy of which vitamin?
Thiamin
Niacin
Pantothenic acid
Riboflavin

Riboflavin

17

The activity of erythrocyte transketolase is useful for assessing the adequacy of which vitamin?
Thiamin
Niacin
Pantothenic acid
Riboflavin

Thiamin

18

Which vitamin uses the AI recommendation for adult recommendation because there is insufficient available data to establish an RDA?
Thiamin
Riboflavin
Niacin
Pantothenate

Pantothenate

19

Excretion of fluorescent orange yellow urine follows oral ingestion of which vitamin?
Pantothenic acid
Thiamin
Niacin
Riboflavin

Riboflavin

20

Which of the following, if any, is not involved in the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex?
Niacin
Riboflavin
Pantothenic acid
Thiamin
All of these are involved

All of these are involved

21

Which of the following B vitamins has a Tolerable Upper Intake Level set due to concerns about side effects?
Riboflavin
Pantothenic acid
Niacin
Thiamin

Niacin

22

Absorption of which vitamin is facilitated by the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT)?
Thiamin
Pantothenic acid
Niacin
Riboflavin

Pantothenic acid

23

Which of the following vitamins has the highest daily requirement in terms of RDA or AI?
Pantothenic acid
Niacin
Thiamin
Riboflavin

Niacin

24

Which of the following statements is true?

Reactive species can be formed during normal physiological processes.
All reactive species in human biology are reactive oxygen species.
Antioxidant supplements have been proven superior to dietary antioxidants for reducing the risk of many diseases.
Glutathione is a more effective antioxidant when it is in an oxidized state, whereas reduced glutathione is not very useful as an antioxidant.

Reactive species can be formed during normal physiological processes.

25

Which antioxidant is most effective in rapidly eliminating hydroxyl radicals prior to initiation of oxidative damage?

vitamin C
beta-carotene
vitamin E
vitamin K

vitamin C

26

Which antioxidant is most effective in terminating chain-propagation reactions in cell membranes?

vitamin E
vitamin C
beta-carotene
vitamin K

vitamin E

27

Which two of the following are reactive oxygen species, but do not fit the definition of a free radical? (Indicate both of the correct answers)

Superoxide anion
Peroxyl radical
Singlet oxygen
Hydroxyl radical
Hydrogen or lipid peroxide

Singlet oxygen

Hydrogen or lipid peroxide

28

Respiratory burst refers to the use of which reactive oxygen species by white blood cells to destroy foreign microbes?
Hydroxyl radical
Peroxyl radical
Superoxide
Peroxynitrite

Superoxide

29

Which of the following is not a source of hydrogen peroxide production in the human body?
Tissue ischemia after injury
Elimination of superoxide radicals
Peroxisome activity
Glutathione peroxidase activation

Glutathione peroxidase activation

30

The Fenton reaction involves the production of hydroxyl radical by the interaction of hydrogen peroxide with _______________.
copper
iron
singlet oxygen
superoxide

iron