Classes 6-7 Neoplasms Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Classes 6-7 Neoplasms Deck (51):
0

Neoplasm

New growth. Uncontrolled.

1

Normal cell growth requires

1. Genetic material (DNA or RNA)
2. Signals from one cell to another.
3. Growth inhibiting and growth promoting substances.

2

Neoplastic cell proliferation is:

1. Autonomous
2. Excessive
3. Disorganized.

3

Clinical classification of neoplasms

Benign -- limited growth good potential

Malignant -- uncontrolled growth. Poor potential.

4

Benign vs malignant: Macroscopic features

Benign:
- sharply demarcated
- often encapsulated
- expansive growth (may lead to atrophy and fibrosis)

Malignant
- no clear margins
- no encapsulation
- invasive growth.
- hemorrhage and necrosis

5

Benign vs malignant tumours: microscopic features.

Benign
- resembles original tissue
- show high levels of differentiation

Malignant
- differs from original tissue
- anaplasia (cells take on new tissue)
- undifferentiated.

6

Benign vs malignant tumours: cellular features

Benign
- homogenous cell population
- well developed cytoplasm
- regular nucleus which occupies small portion of the cell
- even distribution of chromatin

Malignant:
- heterogenous cell populations
- nuclei vary in shape and size. Generally large.
- variable cytoplasm.
-hyper chromatic (more chromatin, uneven distributed in prominent nucleoli)

7

Aneuploid

Abnormal number of chromosomes
Characteristic of malignant cells.

8

Metastasis

Process by which malignant cells move from one site in the body to another.

Occurs via:
1. Lymphatics
2. Blood (hematogenous spread)
3. Body cavities.

9

~Oma

Probably benign tumour of mesenchyme cells.

10

Fibroma

Benign tumour of fibroblasts

11

Chondroma

Benign tumour of cartilage

12

Lipoma

Benign tumour of adipose tissue

13

Leiomyoma

Benign tumour of smooth muscle cells

14

Osteoma

Benign tumour of bone

15

Rhabdomyoma

Benign tumour of striated muscle.

16

Adenoma

Benign tumour of epithelial cells. Composed of glands or ducts unless otherwise specified.

17

Villus or tubular adenomas

Adenoma of GI tract

Also known as polyps.

18

Papilloma

Benign protuberance of skin, bladder, larynx.

19

Cystadenomas

Benign cystic tumours of hollow spaces lined by neoplastic epithelium

20

~sarcoma

Malignant tumour of mesenchymal cells

21

Fibrosarcoma

Malignant tumour from fibroblasts

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Chondrosarcoma

Malignant tumour of cartilage

23

Liposarcoma

Malignant tumour of adipose.

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Carcinoma

Malignant tumours of epithelial cells

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Adenocarcinoma

Malignant tumour of glands and ducts

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3 malignant "~oma"s

Lymphoma (lymphoid cells)
Glioma (glial cells)
Seninomas (testicles)

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~blastoma

Malignant tumour composed of embryonic cells from embryonic primordia

Retinoblastoma (eye)
Neuroblastoma (adrenal medulla or immature neural cells)
Hepatoblastoma (liver)
Nephroblastoma (kidney)

28

Teratoma

Benign tumour derived from germ cells.

Contain tissue derived from ecto, meso and endoderm layers.

29

Teratocarcinoma

Malignant tumour of germ cells.

30

Eponymous tumours

Hodgkin's lymphoma
Ewing's sarcoma
Kaposi sarcoma

31

Tumour staging

Based on clinical assessment.
Extent of tumour spread.

Based on size (T), lymph metastases (N), distant metastases (M)

I-IV or A-D.

Better predictive value than grading

32

Grading of tumours

Grade 1 -- well differentiated
Grade 2 -- moderately well differentiated
Grade 3 -- undifferentiated.

33

Biochemistry of cancer cells

Simple metabolism.
Requires less O2
Fewer mitochondria
Fewer enzymes
Simpler and less abundant RER
Loss of functional capacity
Anaplasia

34

Anaplastic cells

Larger than normal and often with nuclear irregularity.

May regress and assume fetal features.

Ex. Liver cancer cells produce alpha-fetoprotein. Intestinal carcinoma cells produce carinoembryonic antigen.

35

Where do carcinogens act?

1. Site of contact
2. Site of digestion
3. Site of metabolic activation (liver)
4. Site of excretion (urine)

36

6 steps of chemical carcinogenesis

1. Ingestion of procarcinogen
2. Initiation -- start of genetic changes in cell
3. Promotion -- initiated cells stimulated to proliferate
4. Conversion -- to new cell type with ability to proliferate on its own
5. Progression -- acquisition of new genetic features.
6. Clonal expansion

37

Viral carcinogens

1. DNA viruses
2. RNA viruses
A. Acute- or slow- transforming
B. Retrovirus
C. Etc.

38

DNA viruses.

Become directly integrated into cell's genome.

HPV
Epstein-Barr
Hep B

39

Epstein Barr Virua

Human herpes DNA virus with predilection for B-cells

May produce infectious mononucleosis
Related to Burkitt's lymphoma (B cell neoplasia) and nasopharyngeal cancer.

40

Human T cell lymphoma/leukemia virus 1 (HTLV)

RNA retrovirus
Causes rare form of adult T cell leukemia.

41

Proto-oncogenes

Normal cellular genes that can be transformed into oncogenes by four factors:

1. Point mutation
2. Gene amplification
3. Chromosomal rearrangement
4. Insertion of viral genome. (Typical of slow transforming RNA viruses. Also hep B)

42

Tumour Supressor Genes

Regulatory mechanism that protect against activated or newly acquired oncogenes.

43

Cachexia

Wasting. May be a symptom of cancer

44

Paraneoplastic syndromes

Consequence of Cancer that isn't a direct effect of cancer. Caused by substances secreted by cancer cells.

45

Cushing's syndrome

Paraneoplastic syndrome.
May be caused by small cell carcinoma of the lung which also causes adrenal over activity.

46

Hypercalcemia

Paraneoplastic syndrome

Squamous cell carcinoma of lung (or breast cancer) may result in weakening of the bones.

47

Polycythemia

Pathological increase in red blood cells

May be paraneoplastic effect of renal cell carcinoma.

48

Venous thrombosis can be a paraneoplastic effect of

Pancreatic cancer

49

Incidence

The number of new cases in a certain population over a specific period.

50

Prevalence

The number of cases -- old and new -- in a given population at a certain time.