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1

Abdominal pain, ascites, and hepatomegaly

Budd-Chiari syndrome (posthepatic venous thrombosis)

2

Abdominal pain, diarrhea, leukocytosis, recent antibiotic use

Clostridium difficle infection.

3

Achilles tendon xanthoma

Familial hypercholesterolemia (decreased LDL receptor signaling)

4

Adrenal hemorrhage, hypotension, and DIC

Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (meningococcemia)

5

Anaphylaxis following blood transfusion

IgA deficiency

6

Anterior drawer sign

Anterior cruciate ligament injury

7

Arachnodactyly, lens dislocation, aortic dissection, hyperflexible joints

Marfan syndrome (fibrillin defect)

8

Athlete with polycythemia

Secondary to erythropoietin injection.

9

Back pain, fever, and night sweats

Pott disease (vertebral TB).

10

Bilateral acoustic schwannomas

Neurofibromatosis type 2

11

Bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis

Sarcoidosis (noncaseating granulomas)

12

Black eschar on face of patient with diabetic ketoacidosis

Mucor or Rhizopus fungal infection.

13

Blue sclera

Osteogenesis imperfecta (type I collagen defect)

14

Bluish line on gingiva

Burton line (lead poisoning)

15

Bone pain, bone enlargement, and arthritis

Paget disease of bone (increased osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity).

16

Bounding pulses, diastolic heart murmur, head bobbing

Aortic regurgitation

17

Butterfly facial rash and Raynaud phenomenon in a young female

SLE

18

Cafe-au-lait spots, Lisch nodules (iris hemartoma), cutaneous neurofibromas, pheochromocytoma, and optic gliomas

Neurofibromatosis type 1, pheochromocytoma, optic gliomas.

19

Cafe-au-lait spots (unilateral), polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty, multiple endocrine abnormalities

McCune-Albright syndrome (mosaic G-protein signaling mutation).

20

Calf pseudohypertrophy

Muscular dystrophy (most commonly Duchenne due to x-linked recessive frameshift mutation of dystrophin gene).

21

Cervical lymphadenopathy, desquamating rash, coronary aneurysms, red conjunctivae and tongue

Kawasaki disease (treat with IVIG and aspirin)

22

Cherry red spots on macula

Tay-Sachs (ganglioside accumulation) or Niemann Pick (sphingomyelin accumulation), central retinal artery occlusion

23

Chest pain on exertion

Angina (stable if it occurs with moderate exertion; untable with minimal exertion or at rest.

24

Chest pain, pericardial effusion/friction rub, persistent fever following MI

Dressler syndrome (autoimmune mediated post-MI fibrinous pericarditis, 2-12 weeks after an acute episode).

25

Chest pain with ST depressions on EKG

unstable angina (troponin is negative) or NSTEMI (troponin is positive).

26

Child uses arms to stand up from a squat

Gowers sign (Duchenne muscular dystrophy)

27

Child with fever later develops red rash on face that spreads to body

Slapped checks (erthema infectiosum/ fifth disease, parvovirus B19).

28

Chorea, dementia, caudate degeneration

Huntington disease (autosomal dominant CAG repeat expansion).

29

Chorioretinitis, hydrocephalus, intracranial calcifications

Congenital toxoplasmosis

30

Chronic exercise intolerance with myalgia, fatigue, painful cramps, myoglobinuria

McArdle disease (skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase deficiency).

31

Cold intolerance

Hypothyroidism

32

Conjugate horizontal gaze palsy, horizontal diplopia

Intermuclear ophthalmoplegia (damage to MLF, it may be unilateral or bilateral).

33

Continuous machine like murmur

PDA (close with indomethacin, maintain open with PGE analogs)

34

Cutaneous/dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition

Myxedema (caused by hypothyroidism, Graves disease [pretibial]).

35

Cutaneous flushing, diarrhea, and bronchospasm

Carcinoid syndrome (right sided cardiac valvular lesions, increased 5-HIAA).

36

Dark purple skin/mouth nodules in a patient with AIDS

Kaposi sarcoma, it is associated with HHV-8

37

Deep, labored breathing/hyperventilation

Kussmaul respirations (diabetic ketoacidosis).

38

Dermatitis, dementia, and diarrhea

Pellagra (niacin [vitamin B3] deficiency)

39

Dilated cardiomyopathy, edema, alcoholism or malnutrition

Wet beriberi (thiamine [vitamin B1] deficiency)

40

Dog or cat bite resulting in infection

Pasteurella multocida (cellulitis at inoculation site)

41

Dry eyes, dry mouth, and arthritis

Sjogren syndrome (autoimmune destruction of exocrine glands)

42

Dysphagia (esophageal webs), glossitis, iron deficiency

Plummer-Vinson syndrome (may progress to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma).

43

Elastic skin, hypemobility of joints, and increased bleeding tendency

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (type V collagen defect, type III collagen defect seen in vascular subtype of ED).

44

Enlarged, hard left supraclavicular node

Virchow node (abdominal metastasis)

45

Episodic vertigo, tinnitus, hearing loss

Meniere disease

46

Erythroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells.

Mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma) or Sezary syndrome (mycosis fungoides plus malignant T cells in blood).

47

Facial muscle spasm upon tagging

Chvostek sign (hypocalcemia)

48

Fat, female, forty, and fertile

Choelithiasis (gallstones)

49

Fever, chill, headache, myalgia following antibiotic treatment for syphilis

Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (rapid lysis of spirochetes results in endotoxin release).

50

Fever, cough, conjunctivitis, coryza, diffuse rash

Measles

51

Fever, night sweats, weight loss

B symptoms (staging) of lymphoma.

52

Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis with abnormal curvature

Peyronic disease (connective tissue disorder)

53

Golden brown rings around peripheral cornea

Kayser-Fleischer rings (copper accumulation from Wilson disease).

54

Gout, intellectual disability, self mutilating behavior in a boy

Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (HGPRT deficiency, x-linked recessive).

55

Hartomatous GI polyps, hyperpigmentation of mouth/ feet/ hands/ genitalia

Peutz Jeghers syndrome (inherited, benign polyposis can cause bowel obstruction). There is also an increase risk of cancer, mostly GI.

56

Hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, osteoporosis, aseptic necrosis of femur, and bone crisis

Gaucher disease (glucocerbrosidase deficiency).

57

Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts

Alport syndrome (mutation in collagen IV)

58

Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility

Kluver Bucy syndrome (bilateral amygdala lesion)

59

Hyperreflexia, hypertonis, Babinski sign is present

UMN damage

60

Hyporeflexia, hypotonia, atrophy, fasciculations

LMN damage

61

Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia

Blue bloater (chronic bronchitis, hyperplasia, of mucous cells)

62

Nonpainful, indurated, ulcerated genital lesion

Primary syphilis, Treponemia pallidum.

63

Painful, indurated, ulcerated genital lesion with exudate

Chancroid (Haemophilus ducreyi)

64

Infant with cherry red spot on macula, hepatosplenomegaly, and neurodegeneration

Niemann Pick disease (genetic sphingomyelinase deficiency)

65

Infant with cleft lip/palate, microcephaly or holoprosencephaly, polydactly, cutis aplasia.

Patau syndrome (trisomy 13)

66

Infant with hypoglycemia and hepatomegaly

Cori disease (debranching enzyme deficiency) or Von Gierke disease (glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency, more severe)

67

Infant with microcephaly, rocker bottom feet, clenched hands, and structural heart defect

Edwards syndrome (trisomy 18)

68

Jaundice, palpable distended non-tender gallbladder

Courvoisier sign (distal obstruction of the biliary tree)

69

Large rash with bull's appearance

Erythema chronicum migrans from Ixodes tick bite (lyme disease is cause by Borrelia).

70

Lucid interval after traumatic brain injury

Epidural hematoma (middle meningeal artery rupture)

71

Male child, recurrent infections, no mature B cells

Bruton disease (x-linked agammaglobulinema)

72

Mucosal bleeding and prolonged bleeding time

Glanzmann thrombasthenia (defect in platelet aggregation due to lack of GpIIb/IIIa).

73

Muffled heart sounds, distended neck veins, hypotension

Beck triad of cardiac tamponade.

74

Multiple colon polyps, osteomas/soft tissue tumors, impacted/supernumeray teeth

Gardner syndrome (subtype of FAP)

75

Myopathy (infantile hypertrophic cardiomyopathy), exercise intolerance

Pompe disease (lysosomal alpha-1, 4 glucosidase deficiency).

76

Neonate with arm paralysis following a difficult birth

Erb-Duchenne palsy (superior trunk [C5-C6] brachial plexus injury, waiter's tip)

77

No lactation postpartum, absent menstruation, cold intolerance

Sheehan syndrome (pituitary infarction)

78

Nystagmus, intention tremor, scanning speech, bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia

Multiple sclerosis

79

Painful blue fingers/ toes, hemolytic anemia

Cold agglutinin disease (autoimmune hemolytic anemia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, infectious mononucleosis, CLL)

80

Painful finger/toes changing color from blue to white to red

Raynaud phenomenon (vasospasm in extremities)

81

Painful raised red lesions on pads of fingers/toes

Osler nodes (infective endocarditis, immune complexes deposition).

82

Painless erythematous lesions on palms and soles

Janeway lesions (infective endocarditis, septic emboli/ microabscesses)

83

Painless jaundice

Cancer of the pancreatic head obstructing bile duct

84

Palpable purpura on buttocks/legs, joint pain, abdominal pain child), hematuria

Henoch-Schonlein purpura (IgA vasculitis affecting skin and kidneys)

85

Pancreatic, pituitary, parathyroid tumors

MEN 1 (autosomal dominant)

86

Periorbital and/or peripheral edema, proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hypercholesterolemia

Nephrotic syndrome

87

Pink complexion, dyspnea, hyperventilation

Pink puffer (emphysema) Centriacinar is caused by smoking, while panacinar is caused by alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency.

88

Polyuria, renal tubular acidosis type II, growth failure, electrolyte imbalance, hypophosphatemic rickets

Fanconi syndrome (multiple combined dysfunction of the proximal convoluted tubule).

89

Pruritic, purple, polygonal planar papules and plaques (6 P's)

Lichen planus.

90

Ptosis, miosis, anhidrosis

Horner syndrome (sympathetic chain lesion)

91

Pupil accommodates but doesn't react

Argyll Robertson pupil (neurosyphilis).

92

Rapidly progressive limb weakness that ascends following GI/URI

Guillain Barre syndrome (acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculpathy subtype.

93

Rash on palms and soles

Coxsackie A, secondary syphilis, Rocky Mountain spotted fever

94

Recurrent cold (noninflamed) abscesses, unusual eczema, high serum IgE

Hyper-IgE syndrome (Job syndrome, neutrophil chemotaxis abnormalities).

95

Red currant jelly sputum in alcoholic or diabetic patients

Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia

96

Red current jelly stools

Acute mesenteric ischemia (adults), intussusception (children).

97

Red, itchy, swollen rash of nipple/areola

Paget disease of the breast (sign of underlying neoplasm)

98

Red urine in the morning, fragile RBCs

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

99

Renal cell carcinoma (bilateral), hemangioblastomas, angiomatosis, pheochromocytoma

von Hippel Lindau disease (dominant tumor suppressor gene mutation)

100

Resting tremor, rigidity, akinesia, postural instability, shuffling gait

Parkinson disease (loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compacta.

101

Retinal hemorrhages with pale centers

Roth spots (bacterial endocarditis)

102

Severe jaundice in neonate

Crigler-Najjar syndrome (congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)

103

Severe RLQ pain with palpation of LLQ

Rovsing sign (acute appendicitis)

104

Severe RLQ pain with rebound tenderness

McBurney sign (acute appendicitis)

105

Short stature, cafe au lait spots, thumb/ radial defects, increased incidence of tumors/ leukemia, aplastic anemia

Fanconi anemia (genetic loss of DNA cross linked repair, often progresses to AML).

106

Single palmar crease

Down syndrome

107

Situs inversus, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis, and infertility

Kartagener syndrome (dynein arm defect affecting cilia)

108

Skin hyperpigmentation, hypotension, and fatigue

Primary adrenocortical insufficiency (eg Addison disease) causes an increase in ACTH and an increase in alpha-MSH production).

109

Slow, progressive muscle weakness in boys

Becker muscular dystrophy (x-linked missense mutation in dystrophin; it is less severe than Duchenne).

110

Small, irregular red spots on buccal/lingual mucosa with blue-white centers

Koplik spots (measles and rubeola virus)

111

Smooth, moist, painless, wart-like white lesions on genitals

Condylomata lata (secondary syphilis).

112

Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails

Bacterial endocarditis

113

Strawberry tongue

Scarlet fever, Kawaski disease

114

Streak ovaries, congenital heart disease, horseshoe kidney, cystic hygroma at birth, short stature, webbed neck, and lymphedema

Turner syndrome (45, XO)

115

Sudden swollen/painful big toe joint, tophi

Gout/podagra (hyperuricemia)

116

Swollen gums, mucosal bleeding, poor wound healing, petechiae

Scurvy (vitamin C deficiency, preventing hydroxylate proline/lysine for collagen synthesis)

117

Swollen, hard, painful finger joints

Osteoarthritis (osteophytes on PIP [Bouchard nodes], DIP [Heberden nodes].

118

Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo)

Aortic stenosis

119

Telangiectasias, recurrent epistaxis, skin discoloration, arteriovenous malformations, GI bleeding hematuria

Osler-Weber Rendu syndrome

120

Thyroid and parathyroid tumors, pheochromocytoma

MEN 2A (autosomal dominant RET mutation)

121

Thyroid tumor, pheochromocytoma, ganglioneuromatosis

MEN 2B (autosomal dominant RET mutation).

122

Toe extension/fanning upon plantar scrape

Babinski sign (UMN lesion)

123

Unilateral facial drooping involving forehead

LMN facial nerve (CN VII) palsy; UMN lesions spare the forehead.

124

Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis in a male

Reactive arthritis associated with HLA-B27.

125

Vascular birthmark (port wine stain) of the face

Nevus flammeus (benign, but associated with Sturge Weber syndrome)

126

Vomiting blood following gastroesophageal lacerations

Mallory-Weiss syndrome (alcoholic and bulimic patients)

127

Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever adenopathy

Whipple disease (Tropheryma whippei)

128

Worst headache of my life

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

129

Anticentromere antibodies

Scleroderma (CREST)

130

Anti-desmoglein (epithelial) antibodies

Pemphigus vulgaris (blistering)

131

Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies

Goodpasture syndrome (glomerulonephritis and hemoptysis)

132

Antihistone antibodies

Drug induced SLE (eg hydralazine, isoniazid, phenytoin, procainamide)

133

Anti-IgG antibodies

Rheumatoid arthritis (systemic inflammation, joint pannus, boutonniere deformity)

134

Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs)

Primary biliary cirrhosis (female, cholestasis, portal hypertension)

135

Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs)

Microscopic polyangiitis and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Churg Strauss syndrome) (MPO-ANCA/ p-ANCA); granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener; PR3-ANCA/ c-ANCA

136

Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs: anti-Smith and anti-dsDNA)

SLE (type III hypersensitivity)

137

Antiplatelet antibodies

Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

138

Anti-topoisomerase antibodies

Diffuse systemic scleroderma

139

Anti-transglutaminase antibodies

Celiac disease (diarrhea and weight loss)

140

Anti-gliadin antibodies

Celiac disease (diarrhea and weight loss)

141

Anti-endomysial antibodies

Celiac disease (diarrhea and weight loss)

142

Apple core lesion on barium enema x-ray

Colorectal cancer (usually left sided)

143

Atypical lymphocytes

EBV

144

Azurophilic peroxidase positive granular inclusions in granulocytes and myeloblasts

Auer rods (AML, especially the promyelocytic [M3] type)

145

Sensitive to bacitracin

S. pyogens (group A)

146

Resistent to bacitracin

S. agalactiae (group B)

147

Bamboo spine on x-ray

Ankylosing spondylitis (chronic inflammatory arthritis: HLA-B27)

148

Basophilic nuclear remnants in RBCs

Howell-Jolley bodies (due to splenectomy or nonfunctional spleen)

149

Basophilic stippling of RBCs

Lead poisoning or sideroblastic anemia

150

Bloody or yellow tap on lumbar puncture

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

151

Boot-shaped heart on x-ray

Tetralogy of Fallot (due to RVH)

152

Branching gram positive rods with sulfur granules

Actinomyces israelii

153

Bronchogenic apical lung tumor on imaging

Pancoast tumor, which can compress the cervical sympathetic chain and cause Horner syndrome

154

Brown tumor of the bone

Hyperparathyroidism or osteitis fibrosa cystica (deposited hemosiderin from hemorrhage gives it its brown color).

155

Cardiomegaly with apical atrophy

Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi)

156

Cellular crescents in the Bowman capsule

Rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis

157

Chocolate cyst of the ovary

Endometriosis (frequently involves both ovaries)

158

Circular grouping of dark tumor cells surrounding pale neurofibrils

Homer-Wright rosettes (neuroblastoma and medulloblastoma)

159

Colonies of mucoid Pseudomonas in lungs

Cystic fibrosis, which is autosomal recessive due to a mutation in CFTR gene leading to fat soluble vitamin deficiency and mucous plugs.

160

A decrease in AFP in amniotic fluid/maternal serum

Down syndrome or other chromosomal abnormalities.

161

Degeneration of dorsal column fibers

Tabes dorsalis (tertiary syphilis), subacute combined degeneration (dorsal columns, lateral corticospinal, spinocerebellar tracts are affected)

162

Delta wave on EKG, short PR interval, supraventricular tachycardia

Wolf-Parkinson-White syndrome (bundle of Kent bypasses AV node)

163

Depigmentation of neurons in the substantia nigra

Parkinson disease (basal ganglia disorderL rigidity, resting tremor, bradykinesia)

164

Desquamated epithelium casts in sputum

Curschmann spirals (bronchial asthma; can result in whorled mucous plugs)

165

Disarrayed granulosa cells arranged around collections of eosinophilic fluids

Call-Exner bodies (granulosa cell tumor of the ovary)

166

Dysplastic squamous cervical cells with raisinoid nuclei and hyperchromasia

Koilocytes (HPV predisposes to cervical cancer).

167

Electrical alternans (alternating amplitude on EKG)

Pericardial tamponade

168

Enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusion bodies

Owl eye appearance of CMV

169

Enlarged thyroid cells with ground glass nuclei with central clearing

Orphan Annie eyes nuclei (papillary carcinoma of the thyroid)

170

Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in liver cells

Mallory body (alcoholic liver disease)

171

Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in nerve cell

Lewy body (parkinson disease)

172

Eosinophlic globule in liver

Councilman body (viral hepatitis, yellow fever), represents hepatocyte undergoing apoptosis.

173

Eosinophilic inclusion bodies in the cytoplasm of the hippocampal and cerebellar neurons

Negri bodies of rabies

174

Extracellular amyloid deposition in gray matter of brain

Senile plaques (alzheimer disease)

175

Giant B cells with bilobed nuclei with prominent inclusions (owl's eye)

Reed-Sternberg cells (Hodgkin lymphoma)

176

Glomerulus-like structure surrounding vessel in germcells

Schiller-Duval bodies (yolk sac tumor)

177

Hair on end (crew cut) appearance on x-ray

beta-thalassemia, sickle cell disease (marrow expansion)

178

hCG elevated

Choriocarcinoma, hydatidiform mole (occurs with and without embryo, and multiple pregnancy)

179

Heart nodules (granulomatous)

Aschoff bodies (rheumatic fever)

180

Heterophile antibodies

Infectious mononucleosis (EBV)

181

Hexagonal, double pointed, needle like crystals in bronchial secretions

Bronchial asthma (Charcot-Leyden crystals: eosinophilic granules).

182

High level of D dimers

DVT, PE, DIC

183

Hilar lymphadenopathy, peripheral granulomatous lesion in the middle or lower lung lobes (can calcify)

Ghon complex (primary TB: mycobacterium bacilli)

184

Honeycomb lung on x-ray or CT

Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis

185

Hypercoagulability (leading to migrating DVTs and vasculitis)

Trousseau syndrome (adenocarcinoma of the pancreas or lung).

186

Hypersegmented neutrophils

Megaloblastic anemia (B12 deficiency causes neurologic symptoms, while folate deficiency does not cause neurologic symptoms)

187

Hypertension, hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis

Conn syndrome (primary hyperaldosteronism)

188

Hypochromic, microcytic anemia

Iron deficiency anemia, lead poisoning, thalassemia (fetal hemoglobin sometimes present).

189

Increased AFP in amniotic fluid/maternal serum

Dating error, anencephaly, spina bifida (neural tube defects)

190

Increased uric acid levels

Gout, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, tumor lysis syndrome, loop and thiazide diuretics.

191

Intranuclear eosinophilic droplet like bodies

Cowdry type A bodes (HSV or VZV)

192

Iron-containing nodules in alveolar septum

Ferrunginous bodies (asbestosis, which increases the risk of mesothelioma)

193

Keratin pearls on a skin biopsy

Squamous cell carcinoma

194

Large granules in phagocytes, immunodeficiency

Chediak Higashi disease (congenital failure of phagolysosome formation)

195

Lead pipe appearance of the colon on abdominal imaging

Ulcerative colitis (loss of haustra)

196

Linear appearance of IgG deposition on glomerular and alveolar basement membranes

Goodpasture syndrome

197

Low serum ceruloplasmin

Wilson disease (hepatolenticular degeneration)

198

Lumpy bumpy appearance of glomeruli on immunofluorescence

Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (due to deposition of IgG, IgM, and C3)

199

Lytic (punched out) bone lesions on x-ray

Multiple myeloma

200

Mammary gland (blue domed) cyst

Fibrocystic change of the breast

201

Monoclonal antibody spike

Multiple myeloma (usually IgG or IgA). Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS consequence of aging). Waldenstrom (M protein=IgM) macroglobulinemia. Primary amloidosis.

202

Mucin-filled cell with peripheral nucleus

Signet ring (gastric carcinoma)

203

narrowing of bowel lumen on barium x-ray

String sign (Crohn disease)

204

Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegner, PR3-ANCA/ c-ANCA) and Goodpasture syndrome (anti-basement membrane antibodies)

205

Needle shaped, negatively birefringent crystals

Gout (monosodium urate crystals)

206

Nodular hyaline deposits in glomeruli

Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules (diabetic nephropathy)

207

Novobiocin senstive

S. epidermidis

208

Novobiocin resistant

S. saprphyticus

209

Nutmeg appearance of liver

Chronic passive congestion of liver due to right heart failure or Budd Chiari syndrome.

210

onion skin periosteal reaction

Ewing sarcoma (malignant small blue cell tumor)

211

Optochin sensitive

S. pneumoniae

212

Optochin resistant

viridans streptococci (S mutans and S sanguis)

213

Periosteum raised from bone, creating a triangular area

Codman triangle on x-ray, Ewing sarcoma, pyogenic osteomyelitis.

214

Podocyte fusion or effacement on electron microscopy

Minimal change disease (child with nephrotic syndrome).

215

Polished, ivory like appearance of the bone at cartilage erosion

Eburnation (osteoarthritis resulting in bony sclerosis)

216

Protein aggregates in neurons from hyperphosphorylation of tau protein

Neurofibrillary tangles (Alzheimer disease) and Pick bodies (Pick disease)

217

Psammoma bodies

Meningiomas, papillary thyroid carcinoma, mesothelioma, papillary serous carcinoma of the endometrium and ovary.

218

Pseudopalisading tumor cells on brain biopsy

Glioblastoma multiforme

219

RBC casts in urine

Glomerulonephritis

220

Rectangular, crystal like, cytoplasmic inclusions in Leydig cells

Rinke crystals (ledig cell tumor)

221

Recurrent infections, eczema, thrombocytopenia

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome

222

Renal epithelial casts in urine

Intrinsic renal failure (eg ischemia or toxic injury)

223

Rhomboid crystals, positively birefringent

Pseudogout (calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals)

224

Rib notching

Coarctation of the aorta

225

Ring enhancing brain lesion in AIDS

Toxoplasma gondii, CNS lymphoma

226

Sheets of medium-sized lymphoid cells with scattered pale, tingible body laden macrophages (starry sky histology)

Burkett lymphoma (t[8:14] c-myc activation, associated with EBV. The starry sky is made up of malignant cells).

227

Silver-staining spherical aggregation of tau proteins in neurons

Pick bodies (Pick disease is a progressive dementia, changes in personality).

228

Soap bubble is femur or tibia on x-ray

Giant cell tumor of bone (generally benign)

229

Spikes o basement membrane, dome like subepithelial deposits

Membranous nephropathy (nephrotic syndrome)

230

Stacks of RBCs

Rouleaux formation (high ESR, multiple myeloma)

231

Steeple sign on CXR

Croup (parainfluenza virus)

232

Stippled vaginal epithelial cells

Clue cells (Gardnerella vaginalis)

233

Streptococcus bovis bacteremia

Colon cancer

234

Tennis racket shaped cytoplasmic organelles (EM) in Langerhans cells

Birbeck granules (Langerhans cell histiocytosis)

235

Thousands of polyps on colonoscopy

Familial adenomatous polyposis (autosomal dominant, mutation of APC gene)

236

Thrombi made of white/red layers

Lines of Zahn (arterial thrombus, layers of platelets/RBCs)

237

Thumb sign on lateral neck x-ray

Epiglottitis (Haemophilus influenzae)

238

Thyroid like appearance of the kidney

Chronic pyelonephritis (usually due to recurrent infections

239

Tram-track appearance of capillary loops of glomerular basement membranes on light microscopy

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

240

Triglyceride accumulation in liver cell vacuoles

Fatty liver disease (alcoholic or metabolic syndrome)

241

Waxy casts with very low urine flow

Chronic end stage renal disease

242

WBC casts in urine

Acute pyelonephritis

243

WBCs that look smudged

CLL (almost always B cell)

244

Wire loop glomerular capillary appearance on light microscopy

Diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (usually seen with lupus)

245

Yellowish CSF

Xanthochromia (eg due to subarachnoid hemorrhage)

246

Treatment of absence seizures

Ethosuximide

247

Treatment of acute gout attack

NSAIDs, colchicine, glucocorticoids

248

Treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (M3)

All-trans retinoic acid

249

Treatment of ADHD

Methylphenidate, CBT, atomoxetine

250

Treatment of alcoholism

Disulfiram, acamprosate, naltrexone, supportive care

251

Treatment of alcohol withdrawal

Long-acting benzodiazepines

252

Treatment of anorexia

Nutrition, psychotherapy, mirtazapine

253

Treatment of anticoagulation during pregnancy

Heparin

254

Treatment of arrhythmia in damaged cardiac tissue

Class IB antiarrhythmic (lidocaine, mexiletine)

255

Treatment of B12 deficiency

Vitamin B12 supplementation (work up cause with Schilling test)

256

Treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia

alpha 1 antagonists, 5 alpha reductase inhibitors, PDE-5 inhibitors.

257

Treatment of bipolar disorder

Mood stabilizers (eg lithium, valproic acid, carbamazepine), atypical antipsychotics.

258

Treatment of breast cancer in postmenopausal woman

Aromatase inhibitor (anastrozole)

259

Treatment of buerger disease

Smoking cessation

260

Treatment of bulimia nervosa

SSRIs

261

Treatment of candida albicans

Topical azoles (vaginitis); nystain, fluconazole, caspofungin (oral/esophageal); fluconazole, caspofungin, amphotericin B (systemic).

262

Treatment of carcinoid syndrome

Octreotide

263

Treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis

Doxycycline (+ ceftriaxone for gonorrhea coinfection), erthromycin eye drops (prophylaxis in infants).

264

Treatment of chronic gout

Xanthine oxidase inhibitors (eg allopurinol, febuxostat)

265

Treatment of chronic hepatitis B or C

INF-alpha (HBV and HCV); ribavirin, simeprevir, sofosbuvir (HCV)

266

Treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia

Imatinib

267

Treatment of Clostridium botulinum

Antitoxin

268

Treatment of CMV

ganciclovir, foscarnet, cidofovir

269

Treatment of Crohn disease

Corticosteroids, infliximab, azathioprine

270

Treatment of Clostridium difficile

Oral metronidazole; if refractory, oral vancomycin

271

Treatment of Clostridium tetani

Antitoxin

272

Treatment of Cryptococcus neoformans

Fluconazole (in AIDS patients)

273

Treatment of cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis

Mesna

274

Treatment of depression

SSRIs (first line)

275

Treatment of diabetes insipidus

Desmopressin (central); hydrochlorothiazide, indomethacin, amiloride (nephrogenic)

276

Treatment of diabetes mellitus type 1

Dietary intervention (low carbohydrate) + insulin replacement.

277

Treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2

Dietary intervention, oral hypoglycemics, and insulin (if refractory)

278

Treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis

Fluids, insulin, K

279

Treatment of enterococci

Vancomycin, aminopenicillins/cephalosporins

280

Treatment of erectile dysfunction

Sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil

281

Treatment of ER positive breast cancer

Tamoxifen

282

Treatment of ethylene glycol/methanol intoxication

Fomepizole (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor)

283

Treatment of Haemophilus influenzae (B)

Rifampin (prophylaxis)

284

Treatment of generalized anxiety disorder

SSRIs, SNRIs first line); Buspirone (second line)

285

Treatment of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener)

Cyclophosphamide and corticosteroids

286

Treatment of heparin reversal

Protamine sulfate

287

Treatment of HER2/neu positive breast cancer

Trastuzumab

288

Treatment of hyperaldosteronism

Spironolactone

289

Treatment of hypercholesterolemia

Statin (first line)

290

Treatment of hypertriglyceridemia

Fibrate

291

Treatment of immediate anticoagulation

Heparin

292

Treatment of infertility

Leuprolide, GnRH (pulsatile), clomiphene

293

Treatment of influenza

Oseltamivir, zanamivir

294

Treatment of Kawasaki disease

IVIG, high dose aspirin

295

Treatment of Legionella pneumophila

Macrolides (eg azithromycin)

296

Treatment of long term anticoagulation

Warfarin, dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban.

297

Treatment of malaria

Chloroquine, mefloquine, atovaquone/proguanil (for blood schizont), primaquine (for liver hypnozoite)

298

Treatment of malignant hyperthermia

Dantrolene

299

Treatment of medical abortion

Mifepristone

300

Treatment of migraine

Abortive therapies (eg sumatriptan, NSAIDs); prophylaxis (eg propranolol, topiramate, CCBs, amitriptyline)

301

Treatment of multiple sclerosis

Disease modifying therapies (eg beta interferon, natalizumab); for acute flares, use IV steroids.

302

Treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

RIPE (rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol)

303

Treatment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Ceftriaxone (add doxycycline to cover likely concurrent C. trachomatis).

304

Treatment of Neisseria meningitidis

Penicillin/ceftriaxone, rifampin (prophylaxis)

305

Prevention of neural tube defect

Prenatal folic acid

306

Treatment of osteomalacia/rickets

Vitamin D supplementation

307

Treatment of osteoporosis

Calcium/vitamin D supplementation (prophylaxis); bisphosphonates, PTH analogs, SERMs, calcitonin, denosumab (treatment)

308

Treatment of patent ductus arteriosus

Close with indomethacin; keep open with PGE analogs

309

Treatment of pheochromocytoma

alpha antagonists (eg phenoxybenzamine)

310

Treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii

TMP-SMX (prophylaxis in AIDS patients)

311

Treatment of prolactinoma

Cabergoline/bromocriptine (dopamine agonists)

312

Treatment of prostate adenocarcinoma/uterine fibroids

Leuprolide, GnRH (continuous)

313

Treatment of prostate adenocarcinoma

Flutamide

314

Treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Antipseudomonal penicillins, aminoglycosides, and carbapenems

315

Treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (idiopathic)

Sildenafil, bosentan, epoprostenol

316

Treatment of Rickettsia rickettsii

Doxycycline, chloramphenicol

317

Treatment of schizophrenia (negative symptoms)

Atypical antipsychotics

318

Treatment of schizophrenia (positive symptoms)

Typical and atypical antipsychotics

319

Treatment of SIADH

Fluid restriction, IV hypertonic saline, conivaptan/tolvaptan, demeclocycline.

320

Treatment of sickle cell disease

Hydroxyurea (increase in fetal hemoglobin)

321

Treatment of Sporothrix schenckii

Itraconazole, oral potassium iodide

322

Treatment of stable angina

Sublingual nitroglycerin

323

Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus

MSSA: nafcillin, oxacillin, decloxacillin (antistaphlyococcal penicillins); MRSA: vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, and ceftaroline

324

Treatment of Streptococcus bovis

Penicillin prophylaxis; evaluation for colon cancer if linked to endocarditis

325

Treatment of Streptococcus pneumoniae

Penicillin/cephalosporin (systemic infection, pneumonia), vancomycin (meningitis)

326

Treatment of Streptococcus pyogenes

Penicillin prophylaxis

327

Treatment of temporal arteritis

High-dose steroids

328

Treatment of tonic-clonic seizures

Levetiracetam, phenytoin, valporate, carbamazepine

329

Treatment of Toxoplasma gondii

Sulfadiazine plus pyrimethamine

330

Treatment of Treponema pallidum

Penicillin

331

Treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux)

Carbamazepine

332

Treatment of ulcerative colitis

5-ASA preparations (eg mesalamine), 6-mercaptopurine, infliximab, colectomy

333

Treatment of UTI prophylaxis

TMP-SMX

334

Treatment for warfarin reversal

Fresh frozen plasma (acute), vitamin K (chronic)

335

Most common cause of actinic (solar) keratosis

Precursor to squamous cell carcinoma

336

Most common cause of acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury

Cushing ulcer (increased intracranial pressure stimulates vagal gastric H secretion)

337

Most common cause of acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns

Curling ulcer (greatly reduced plasma volume results in sloughing of gastric mucosa)

338

Most common cause of alternating areas of transmural inflammation and normal colon

Skip lesions (Crohn disease)

339

Most common cause of aortic aneurysm, abdominal

Atherosclerosis

340

Most common cause of aortic aneurysm, ascending or arch

Tertiary syphilis (syphilitic aortitis), vasa vasorum destruction.

341

Most common cause of aortic aneurysm, thoracic

Marfan syndrome (idiopathic cystic medial degeneration)

342

Most common cause of aortic dissection

Hypertension

343

Most common cause of atrophy of the mammillary bodies

Wernicke encephalopathy (thiamine deficiency causing ataxia, ophthalmoplegia and confusion)

344

Most common cause of autosplenectomy (fibrosis and shrinkage)

Sickle cell disease (hemoglobin S)

345

Most common cause of bacteria associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and stomach cancer

H. pylori

346

Most common cause of bacterial meningitis (adults and elderly)

S. pneumoniae

347

Most common cause of bacterial meningitis (newborns and elderly)

Group B streptococcus/ E coli (newborns). S pneumoniae/ N meningitidis (kids/teens)

348

Most common cause of bilateral ovarian metastases from gastric carcinoma

Krukenberg tumor (mucin secreting signet ring cells)

349

Most common cause of a bleeding disorder with GpIb deficiency

Bernard Soulier syndrome (defect in platelet adhesion to von Willebrand factor)

350

Most common cause of brain tumor in adults

Supratentorial tumors includes metastasis, astrocytoma (including glioblastoma multiforme), meningioma, schwannoma.

351

Most common cause of brain tumor in children

Infratentorial tumors include medulloblastoma (cerebellum) or supratentorial tumors include craniopharyngioma.

352

Most common cause of breast cancer

Invasive ductal carcinoma

353

Most common cause of breast mass

Fibrocystic change and carcinoma (in postmenopausal women)

354

Most common cause of breast tumor (benign)

Fibroadenoma

355

Most common cause of cardiac primary tumors in kids

Rhabdomyoma, it is often seen in tuberous sclerosis

356

Most common cause of cardiac manifestation of lupus

Marantic/thrombotic endocarditis (nonbacterial)

357

Most common cause of cardiac tumor in adults

Metastasis, myxoma (90% in left atrium; ball and valve)

358

Most common cause of cerebellar tonsillar herniation

Chiari II malformation

359

Most common cause of chronic arrhythmia

Atrial fibrillation (associated with high risk of emboli)

360

Most common cause of chronic atrophic gastritis (autoimmune)

Predisposition to gastric carcinoma (can also cause pernicious anemia)

361

Most common cause of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina

DES exposure in utero

362

Most common cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia with hypotension

21-hydroxylase deficiency

363

Most common cause of congenital cardiac anomaly

VSD

364

Most common cause of congenital conjugated hyerbilirubinemia (black liver)

Dubin-Johnson syndrome (inability of hepatocytes to secrete conjugated bilirubin into bile)

365

Most common cause of constrictive pericarditis

TB (developing world); idiopathic, viral illness (developed world).

366

Most common cause of coronary artery involved in thrombosis

LAD is more common than RCA, which is more common than the circumflex of the LCA.

367

Most common cause of cretinism

Iodine deficit/ congenital hypothyroidism

368

Most common cause of Cushing syndrome

Iatrogenic (from corticosteroid therapy), adrenocortical adenoma (secretes excess cortisol), ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma (Cushing disease), paraneoplastic (due to ACTH secretion by tumors).

369

Most common cause of cyanosis (early in life, less common)

Tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of great vessels, truncus arteriosus

370

Most common cause of cyanosis (later in life, more common)

VSD, ASD, PDA

371

Most common cause of death in CML

Blast crisis

372

Most common cause of death in SLE

Lupus nephropathy

373

Most common cause of dementia

Alzheimer disease, multiple infarcts (vascular dementia)

374

Most common cause of demyelinating disease in young women

Multiple sclerosis

375

Most common cause of DIC

Severe sepsis, obstetric complications, cancer, burns. trauma, major surgery.

376

Most common dietary deficit

Iron

377

Most common cause of diverticulum in the pharynx

Zenker diverticulum (diagnosed by barium swallow)

378

Most common cause of ejection click

Aortic stenosis

379

Most common cause of esophageal cancer

Squamous cell carcinoma (worldwide); adenocarcinoma (US)

380

Most common cause of food poisoning (exotoxin mediated)

S. aureus, B cereus

381

Most common cause of glomerulonephritis (adults)

Berger disease (IgA nephropathy)

382

Most common cause of gynecologic malignancy

Endometrial carcinoma (most common in US); cervical carcinoma (most common worldwide)

383

Most common cause of congenital heart murmur

mitral valve prolapse

384

Most common heart valve effected in bacterial endocarditis

Mitral valve is more common than the aortic valve (rheumatic fever, tricuspid (IV drug abuse)

385

Most common cause of helminth infection (US)

Enterobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides

386

Most common cause of epidermal hematoma

Rupture of middle meningeal artery (trauma; lentiform shaped)

387

Most common cause of subdural hematoma

rupture of bridging veins (crescent shaped)

388

Most common cause of hemochromatosis

Multiple blood transfusions or hereditary HFE mutation (can result in heart failure, bronze diabetes, and increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma).

389

Most common cause of hepatocellular carcinoma

Cirrhotic liver (associated with hepatitis B and C and with alcoholism)

390

Most common cause of hereditary bleeding disorder

von Willebrand disease

391

Most common cause of hereditary harmless jaundice

Gilbert syndrome (benign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)

392

Most common diseases with HLA-B27 association

Ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, ulcerative colitis, psoriatic arthritis.

393

Most common diseases with HLA-DR3 association

Diabetes mellitus type 1, SLE, Graves disease, Hashimoto thyroiditis

394

Most common diseases with HLA-DR4 association

Diabetes mellitus type 1, rheumatoid arthritis

395

Most common cause of holosystolic murmur

VSD, tricuspid regurgitation, mitral regurgitation

396

Most common cause of hypercoagulability, endothelial damage, blood stasis

Virchow triad (increased risk of thrombosis)

397

Most common cause of secondary hypertension

renal disease

398

Most common cause of hypoparathyroidism

Accidental excision during thyroidectomy

399

Most common cause of hypopituitarism

Pituitary adenoma (usually benign tumor)

400

Most common cause of infection secondary to blood transfusion

Hepatitis C

401

Most common cause of infection in chronic granulomatous disease

S. aureus, E. coli, Aspergillus (catalase positive)

402

Most common cause of intellectual disability

Down syndrome and fragile X syndrome

403

Most common cause of radiopaque kidney stones

Calcium. Struvite (ammonium), formed by urease positive organisms such as Klebsiella, Proteus species, and S saprophyticus)

404

Most common cause of radiolucent kidney stones

Uric acid

405

Most common cause of late cyanotic shunt (uncorrected left to right becomes right to left)

Eisenmenger syndrome (caused by ASD, VSD, PDA, results in pulmonary hypertension/polycythemia)

406

Most common cause of liver disease

Alcoholic cirrhosis

407

Most common cause of lysosomal storage disease

Gaucher disease

408

Most common cause of male cancer

prostatic carcinoma

409

Most common cause of malignancy associated with noninfectious fever

Hodgkin lymphoma

410

Most common cause of malignancy in kids

ALL, medulloblastoma (cerebellum)

411

Most common cause of metastases to bone

Prostate and breast are more likely than lung, which is more likely than the thyroid

412

Most common cause of metastases to the brain

Lung is more likely than breast, which is more likely than genitourinary, which is more likely than melanoma, which is more likely than GI

413

Most common cause of metastases to liver

Colon is much more likely than both stomach and pancreas

414

Most common diseases with mitochondrial inheritance

Diseases occurs in both males and females, inherited through females only.

415

Most common cause of mitral valve stenosis

Rheumatic heart disease

416

Most common cause of mixed (UMN and LMN) motor neuron disease

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

417

Most common cause of myocarditis

Coxsackie B

418

Most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

419

Most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in kids

Minimal change disease

420

Most common cause of neuron migration failure

Kallmann syndrome (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia

421

Most common cause of nosocomial pneumonia

S. aureus, Pseudomonas, other enteric gram-negative rods

422

Most common cause of obstruction of male urinary tract

BPH

423

Most common cause of opening snap

Mitral stenosis

424

Most common cause of opportunistic infection in AIDS

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia

425

Most common cause of osteomyelitis

S. aureus (most common overall)

426

Most common cause of osteomyelitis in sickle cell disease

Salmonella

427

Most common cause of osteomyelitis with IV drug use

Pseudomonas, Candida, S aureus

428

Most common cause of ovarian tumor (benign, bilateral)

Serous cystadenoma

429

Most common cause of ovarian tumor (malignant)

Serous cystadenocarcinoma

430

Most common cause of pancreatitis (acute)

Gallstones and alcohol

431

Most common cause of pancreatitis (chronic)

Alcohol (adults), cystic fibrosis (kids)

432

Most common patient with ALL

child

433

Most common patient with CLL

adults over 60

434

Most common patient with AML

adults around 65

435

Most common patient with CML

adults 45-85

436

Most common cause of pelvic inflammatory disease

C. trachomatis, N gonorrhoeae

437

Most common cause of Philadelphia chromosome t(9;22) (BCR-ABL)

CML (it can also be associated with ALL/AML)

438

Most common cause of pituitary tumor

Prolactinoma, somatotropic adenoma

439

Most common cause of primary amenorrhea

Tuner syndrome (45, XO).

440

Most common cause of primary bone tumor (adults)

Multiple myeloma

441

Most common cause of primary hyperparaldosteronism

Adenoma of adrenal cortex

442

Most common cause of primary liver cancer

Hepatocellular carcinoma (chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, hemochromatosis, alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, Wilson disease.

443

Most common cause of pulmonary hypertension

COPD

444

Most common cause of recurrent inflammation/thrombosis of small/medium vessels in extremities

Buerger disease (strongly associated with tobacco)

445

Most common cause of renal tumor

Renal cell carcinoma is associated with von Hippel Lindau and cigarette smoking, paraneoplastic syndromes (EPO, renin, PTHrP, ACTH)

446

Most common cause of right heart failure due to a pulmonary cause

Cor pulmonale

447

Most common cause of S3 heart sound

Increase in ventricular filling pressure (eg mitral regurgitation, HF), common in dilated ventricles.

448

Most common cause of S4 heart sound

Stiff/hypertrophic ventricle (aortic stenosis, restrictive cardiomyopathy)

449

Most common cause of secondary hyperparathyroidism

Hypocalcemia of chronic kidney disease

450

Most common cause of sexually transmitted disease

C. trachomatis (usually coinfected with N gonorrhoeae)

451

Most common cause of SIADH

Small cell carcinoma of the lung

452

Most common site of diverticula

Sigmoid colon

453

Most common cause of atherosclerosis

Abdominal aorta is the most common, followed by coronary artery, followed by popliteal artery, and carotid artery.

454

Most common cause of stomach cancer

adenocarcinoma

455

Most common cause of stomach ulcerations and high gastrin levels

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (gastrinoma of duodenum or pancreas)

456

Most common cause of cancer with t(14; 18)

Follicular lymphomas (BCL-2 activation, anti-apoptotic oncogene)

457

Most common cause of cancer with t(8; 14)

Burkitt lymphoma (c-myc fusion, transcription factor oncogene)

458

Most common cause of cancer with t(9; 22)

Philadelphia chromosome, CML (BCR-ABL activation, tyrosine kinase oncogene)

459

Sequela of temporal arteritis

Risk of ipsilateral blindness due to occlusion of ophthalmic artery; polymyalgia rheumatica

460

Most common cause of testicular tumor

Seminoma (malignant and radiosensitive)

461

Most common cause of thyroid cancer

Papillary carcinoma

462

Most common tumor in women

Leiomyoma (estrogen dependent, not precancerous)

463

Most common tumor in infancy

Strawberry hemangioma (usually regresses spontaneously by childhood).

464

Most common tumor of the adrenal medulla in adults

Pheochromocytoma (usually benign)

465

Most common tumor of the adrenal medulla in kids

Neuroblastoma (malignant)

466

Most common type of Hodgkin lymphoma

Nodular sclerosing (vs mixed cellularity, lymphocytic predominance, lymphocytic depletion)

467

Most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Diffuse large B cell lymphoma

468

Most common cause of UTI

E coli, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (young women)

469

Most common cause of vertebral compression fracture

Osteoporosis (type I: postmenopausal woman; type II: elderly man or woman)

470

Most common cause of viral encephalitis affecting temporal lobe

HSV-1

471

Most common vitamin deficiency (US)

Folate (pregnant women are at high risk; body stores only 3 to 4 month supply; prevents neural tube defects.

472

Equation for sensitivity

Sensitivity=TP/ (TP+FN)

473

Equation for specificity

Specificity=TN/(TN+FP)

474

Equation for positive predictive value

PPV=TP/(TP+FP)

475

Equation for negative predictive value

NPV=TN/(FN+TN)

476

Odds ratio (for case control studies)

OR=(a/c)/(b/d)

477

Relative risk

RR=[a/(a+b)]/[c/(c+d)

478

Attributable risk

AR= a/(a+b)- c(c+d)

479

Relative risk reduction

RRR=1-RR

480

Absolute risk reduction

ARR=c/(c+d)-a/(a+b)

481

Number needed to treat

NNT=1/absolute risk reduction

482

Number needed to harm

NNH=1/attributable risk

483

Hardy-Weinberg

p2+2pq+q2=1. p+q=1

484

Volume of distribution

Vd=amount of drug in the body/plasma drug concentration

485

Half-life

t1/2=0.693 x Vd/ CL

486

Drug clearance

CL=rate of elimination of drug/plasma drug concentration=Vd x Ke (elimination constant)

487

Loading dose

LD=Cp x Vd/F

488

Maintenance dose

D=Cp x CL x tau/F

489

Cardiac output

CO=rate of O2 consumption/ (arterial O2 content-venous O2 content). CO=stroke volume x heart rate.

490

Mean arterial pressure

MAP= cardiac output x total peripheral resistance. MAP=2/3 diastolic +1/3 systolic

491

Stroke volume

SV=EDV-ESV

492

Ejection fraction

EF=SV/EDV=(EDV-ESV)/EDV

493

Resistance

resistance=driving pressure (delta P)/flow (Q)=8n(viscosity) x length/Pir4.

494

Capillary fluid exchange

Jv=net fluid flow= Kf(Pc-Pi)-epsilon(Pic-Pii).

495

Renal clearance

Cx=Ux x V/Px

496

Glomerular filtration rate

GFR= Uinsulin x V/Pinsulin=Cinsulin. GFR=Kf[(Pgc-Pbs)-(Pigc- Pibs)]

497

Effective renal plasma flow

eRPF=Upah x V/Ppah=Cpah

498

Renal blod flow

RBF=RPF/(1-Hct)

499

Filtration fraction

FF=GFR/RPF

500

Henderson-Hasselbalch equation (for extraceullar pH)

pH = 6.1 + log [HCO3-]/[0.03xPCO2]

501

Winters formula

Pco2 = 1.5 [HCO3-] + 8 ± 2

502

Physiologic dead space

Vd=Vt x (PaCO2-PECO2)/PaCO2

503

Pulmonary vascular resistance

PVR= (Ppulm artery - PLatrium)/cardiac output

504

Alveolar gas equation

PAO2=PIO2-PaCO2/R