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Flashcards in Classification and evolution Deck (18):

What are the groups classification puts organisms into called?

Taxonomic groups


What is classification?

The sorting of organisms into groups


What are species?

Groups of organisms that can breed to produce fertile offspring


What is the order in size of the 8 taxonomic groups?

Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species


What are the advantages of a classification system?

You can analyse evolutionary relationships between organisms, you can predict characteristics (species grouped together are likely to share characteristics) and identify species, and share research findings


Why does the definition of species lack accuracy?

Some species reproduce asexually, some separate species (e.g. chimps and bonobos) can breed to produce fertile offspring, showing other criteria are involved


What is the difference between the cell walls of bacteria and archaea?

Bacterial cell walls contain peptidoglycan, archaea do not


What is phylogeny?

The study of evolutionary relationships between organsims


What do nodes represent on phylogenetic trees?

Common ancestors


Why might the structure of a phylogenetic tree vary over time?

New contrasting evidence or different interpretations of existing evidence


What type of variation does evolution require to occur?



How can genetic variation be produced?

DNA mutation, Crossing over (prophase I), Independent assortment (metaphase I and II), random fertilisation


What are the 3 categories of adaptations?

Anatomical, behavioural, physiological


What is convergent evolution?

Unrelated species that live in similar habitats and face similar selection pressures can evolve similar structures (analogous structures) independent of each other


What is an adaptation?

A trait that benefits an organism in its environment and increases its chances of survival and reproduction


How can palaeontology be used as evidence for evolution?

Simpler organisms in older rock
Plants in older rock than animals
Gradual anatomical changes


How can comparative anatomy be used as evidence for evolution?

Homologous structures provide evidence for divergent evolution
Vestigial structures
Embryos similar for different species suggest they have a common origin


How can comparative biochemistry be used as evidence for evolution?

Rate of mutations in DNA can be calculated, enabling evolutionary relationships to be analysed
More closely related, fewer base sequence changes in DNA (therefore fewer primary protein structure changes)