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Flashcards in Classification and evolution Deck (18):
1

What are the groups classification puts organisms into called?

Taxonomic groups

2

What is classification?

The sorting of organisms into groups

3

What are species?

Groups of organisms that can breed to produce fertile offspring

4

What is the order in size of the 8 taxonomic groups?

Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species

5

What are the advantages of a classification system?

You can analyse evolutionary relationships between organisms, you can predict characteristics (species grouped together are likely to share characteristics) and identify species, and share research findings

6

Why does the definition of species lack accuracy?

Some species reproduce asexually, some separate species (e.g. chimps and bonobos) can breed to produce fertile offspring, showing other criteria are involved

7

What is the difference between the cell walls of bacteria and archaea?

Bacterial cell walls contain peptidoglycan, archaea do not

8

What is phylogeny?

The study of evolutionary relationships between organsims

9

What do nodes represent on phylogenetic trees?

Common ancestors

10

Why might the structure of a phylogenetic tree vary over time?

New contrasting evidence or different interpretations of existing evidence

11

What type of variation does evolution require to occur?

Intraspecific

12

How can genetic variation be produced?

DNA mutation, Crossing over (prophase I), Independent assortment (metaphase I and II), random fertilisation

13

What are the 3 categories of adaptations?

Anatomical, behavioural, physiological

14

What is convergent evolution?

Unrelated species that live in similar habitats and face similar selection pressures can evolve similar structures (analogous structures) independent of each other

15

What is an adaptation?

A trait that benefits an organism in its environment and increases its chances of survival and reproduction

16

How can palaeontology be used as evidence for evolution?

Simpler organisms in older rock
Plants in older rock than animals
Gradual anatomical changes

17

How can comparative anatomy be used as evidence for evolution?

Homologous structures provide evidence for divergent evolution
Vestigial structures
Embryos similar for different species suggest they have a common origin

18

How can comparative biochemistry be used as evidence for evolution?

Rate of mutations in DNA can be calculated, enabling evolutionary relationships to be analysed
More closely related, fewer base sequence changes in DNA (therefore fewer primary protein structure changes)