Flashcards in Classification and evolution Deck (18):
What are the groups classification puts organisms into called?
What is classification?
The sorting of organisms into groups
What are species?
Groups of organisms that can breed to produce fertile offspring
What is the order in size of the 8 taxonomic groups?
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
What are the advantages of a classification system?
You can analyse evolutionary relationships between organisms, you can predict characteristics (species grouped together are likely to share characteristics) and identify species, and share research findings
Why does the definition of species lack accuracy?
Some species reproduce asexually, some separate species (e.g. chimps and bonobos) can breed to produce fertile offspring, showing other criteria are involved
What is the difference between the cell walls of bacteria and archaea?
Bacterial cell walls contain peptidoglycan, archaea do not
What is phylogeny?
The study of evolutionary relationships between organsims
What do nodes represent on phylogenetic trees?
Why might the structure of a phylogenetic tree vary over time?
New contrasting evidence or different interpretations of existing evidence
What type of variation does evolution require to occur?
How can genetic variation be produced?
DNA mutation, Crossing over (prophase I), Independent assortment (metaphase I and II), random fertilisation
What are the 3 categories of adaptations?
Anatomical, behavioural, physiological
What is convergent evolution?
Unrelated species that live in similar habitats and face similar selection pressures can evolve similar structures (analogous structures) independent of each other
What is an adaptation?
A trait that benefits an organism in its environment and increases its chances of survival and reproduction
How can palaeontology be used as evidence for evolution?
Simpler organisms in older rock
Plants in older rock than animals
Gradual anatomical changes
How can comparative anatomy be used as evidence for evolution?
Homologous structures provide evidence for divergent evolution
Embryos similar for different species suggest they have a common origin