Classification SK MM Flashcards Preview

BIO 2310 - Exam 3 (Muscles) > Classification SK MM > Flashcards

Flashcards in Classification SK MM Deck (15):
1

agonists

prime movers, produce particular movement

2

antagonists

oppose or reverse a movement. can be a primer (bicep muscle of arm that is prime mover of elbow flexion is antagonized by tricepts a primse movement of elbow extension)

3

synergists

aid the action of agonists either by assisting with the same movement or by reducing undesirable/unnecessary movement. ex: can make fist without bending wrist bc syn mm stabilize wrist joints and allow the prime mover to exert its force at finger joints

4

fixators

specialized syngergists immobilize the origin of prime mover so that all the tension is exerted at the insertion. ex: muscles that help maintain posture, or muscles that stabilize scapula during arm movements

5

origin

attachment of mm to immovable or less movable bone

when mm contracts, it mvoes toward the origin

6

insertion

attachment to the movable bone

A image thumb
7

parallel muscles

long, run parallel along the axis

ex: sartorius (inner thigh), rectis abdominis

A image thumb
8

convergent muscles

fascicles converge toward a single insetion tendon 

ex: pec muscle

9

circular muscle

others like a sphincter (squeexer)

ex: mouth

10

fusiform muscle

modification fo parallel, springle shaped with expanded belly

ex: bicepts brachii

11

pennate muscles

feather like

short fascicles attach obliquely to central tendon

unipennate: fascicles run to 1 side (flexor pollicus longus)

bipennate: " on both sides (rectus femoris)

multipennate: " from several different sides(deltoid)

 

12

naming mm 

1. direction ( imaginary line); rectus vs oblique

2. size (maximus, minimus, longus)

3. location (bone, temporalis mm)

4. # of origins (bicept, tricepts, quadriceps)

5. attachment sites

6. shape (distinct shape, deltoid, thomboid)

7. action (flexor, extensor adductor)

13

isotonic contraction

movement does take place, bc tension generated by the contracting muscle exceeds the load on the muscle, occurs when you use your muscles to push/pull an object

14

concentric contraction

muscle decreases in length against an opposing load, such as lifting a weight up

15

eccentric contraction

muscle increases in length as it resists a load, such as loweriing a weight down in a slow, controlled fashion

- during concentri : muscles shortening serve as agonists. during eccentri: muscles lengthening serve as agonists ( and do al of works)