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BIO 2310 - Exam 3 (Muscles) > Muscular System + Studies > Flashcards

Flashcards in Muscular System + Studies Deck (17):

different types of muscle

skeletal, cardiac, smooth


skeletal muscle

aka: striated and voluntary - attach to skeleton - striated b/c mm fibers striped - tires easily - contract w/ great force &rapidly

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Anatomy of skeletal MM

*know this diagram*

actin + myosin = myofilament

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- btw muscle fibers

- encloses each mm fiber (wraps around each)

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perimysium + fascicle

wraps, bundles and covers several sheated fibers together

- this forms the fascicle

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a bunch of fascicles wrapped together

- this covers the entire length of the mm

- tapers into a tendon which attaches to bone

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smooth mm

NO striations



found in "hollow tubes" of visceral organs (stomach, bladder, respiratory passages)

Propels food and substances through

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2 layers of smooth mm

circular layer 

longitudinal layer

- allows mm to alternately contract and relax so they can move food through

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cardiac mm

found only in heart



intercelated discs

mm contracts >> becomes smaller thus forcing blood into the arteries leaving the heart

Usually contracts @ steady rate

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4 Skeletal MM functions

1. Produce movement

2. Maintains posture

3. Stabilizes joints

4. Generates heat (by product of ATP, 3/4 of energy escapes as hear)

- skeletal mm is 40% body's mass


muscle for stabilization study

- muscle stabilization is key for spinal and joint health

- trunk mm imbalance and risk factor of low back pain

- low score had 340% increase risk for lower back pain


chronic low back pain

causes deficits in trunk mm strength

- normal extensor mm to flecor mm ratio is 1.2-1.5, but there is a deficit in lumbar extensors for clbp

- multifidi are used mostly hen the spine is extension

- fatty infiltration of lumbar extensors seen on MRI

- more severe BP - more atrophy and fat in mm

- adjustments and rehabilitation helps improvement


lumbar spine and sacrum study

intertrasversarri and interspinales mm act as large propreoception transducers (balance center)

- they send feeback to brain via mm spindles

- Failure to recruit these mm > LBP, weak mm, poor stabilizers, inadequate protection, microtrauma


if spine is moved out of place...

if spine goes out of place, nerve goes, and then muscle cant respond properly


lumbar dorsal ramus syndrome

when a nerve shuts down, muscle cant respond. 

caused by subluxation (abnormal motion) and misalignment 

use stregnth, neurological traning, adjustements to help, prevent, and manage


Myasthenia gravis

chronic autoimmune disorder - failure in transmission of nerve impulses to muscles - persistent muscular weakness and easily fatigued


parkinson's disease

neurodegenerative disease

cell death in brain and presence of Lewy bodies in neurons

stiff and acing muscles bc they cant normal relax